Extra History of Qing Empire / The Greatest Empires

 Chinese Civilization and the Qing Dynasty :

History of Qing Empire : this a most searched topic at Google now days. Every one wants to know about Qing Empire, how this empire rise, their achievements and fall of Qing Empire. Today we will discuss all about this Greatest Empire. 

Extra History of Qing Empire / The Greatest Empires

Content Titles :

  • Where and When Did the Qing Dynasty Rule?
  • Origin of the Qing Empire
  • Qing Dynasty at its Peak
  • Declining Qing Empire

The last empire to rule the republic of China from the 17th to the 20th centuries was the Qing Dynasty. The Qing reigned in China at a time when the world's great powers were concentrated in Europe. The aggression and rivalry of these great powers led to the fall of the empire.

However, this empire is of great importance in modern Chinese history, and anyone who learns Chinese history will definitely face the Qing Empire. More importantly, this dynasty marked the borders of present-day China, dominating a multicultural and growing population, but  was defeated by great powers such as the British Empire with more advanced technology and better economic and military might.

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Where and When Did the Qing Dynasty Rule?

If you want to learn about Chinese civilization, you will first need to learn about the Qing Dynasty, which is the basis of this civilization, as the Turkish-Chinese relations are given a large place during the history lesson .

The official reign of the Qing Dynasty is 1644-1912 . Dynastic rule was technically introduced in Manchuria before these dates.

The Qing was the fifth largest empire in history . It not only formed the borders of present-day China; it also took control of Tibet, Outer Mongolia, and Taiwan, and greatly influenced Korea with its activities in Manchuria.

The rulers were from Manchuria, which made up the northeastern part of China bordering Korea. That is why their nickname is the Manchu dynasty . Its capital was Shenyang before Beijing.

The empire collapsed in 1912 when eight global powers —Italy, the United States, Austria-Hungary, France, Japan, Germany, Russia, and the United Kingdom— had jointly invaded . At that time they were trying to suppress the Boxer Rebellion led by Empress Dowager Cixi . The main purpose of this uprising was to drive all foreigners out of the country. When the uprising failed, Cixi Xi'an fled to Manchuria, and the empire soon ended.

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Origin of the Qing Empire :

Considering the khanate in the ethnic structure of China in the 20th century, it is quite interesting that China was ruled by the Qing dynasty for the second time, not by a khan. The first took place during the Mongol Empire. The Jurchen people from Manchuria founded the Qing Empire and ruled the country.

The Manchuria state was originally founded by a chieftain named Nurhacı, who tried to unite the tribes around him. In 1616, Nurhacı declared himself the Great Jin Khan.

He attacked the Ming Dynasty to unite other tribes still allied to the Chinese Empire in Beijing at the time, and captured the city of Shenyang in 1625. He made this city known as Mukden his capital.

It was clear that Manchu troops were inadequate when allied with the Khorchin Mongols from the Mongol Empire. However, after many military successes, more Mongols enlisted and the army fleeing the Ming joined the Han people.

Nurhacı died in 1626. Nurhaji's grandson, Shunzhi, became emperor after extensive imperial struggles, and eventually the Ming dynasty conquered Beijing. Thus in 1644 the Qing dynasty ruled over all of China.

Shunzhi became the Mandate of Heaven. According to this belief, the power of those who ruled China would come from heaven. And if a dynasty fell or major natural disasters occurred, it was believed that this ruler was no longer worthy of heaven.

After the conquest of Beijing, it took seventeen years for the remnants of the Ming to be defeated.

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Qing Dynasty at its Peak :

Shunzhi, who established Qing power over the Chinese capital, died of smallpox six years later. He was succeeded by his third son, who became the Kangxi emperor.

Qing-ruled China for the next three generations—the Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong rulers; reached the pinnacle of his power, wealth, and cultural and artistic achievement .

Kangxi (1661-1722) was the longest reigning monarch in China ever. His grandson Qianlong could break his record, but he resigned to avoid overpowering his grandfather's rule.

Lands :

With the Qing dynasty, the emperors consolidated their power over China and expanded their territory . The Kangxi defeated the Russians in the battle on the Amur River, as a result of which the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk was signed. In this treaty, it was decided that China should dominate most of Siberia and Manchuria. (These sovereign lands were later occupied by the Russian Empire.) He defeated the Dzungar Mongols to take control of Inner and Outer Mongolia and Tibet and also captured Taiwan.

One of the duties of the Chinese emperor was to suppress rebellions . Kangxi's troops suppressed the Three Groomsmen's Revolt in 1673.

Government :

When the Chinese dynasty moved to Beijing, he settled in the Forbidden City.

The monarch was the absolute ruler of China and headed six ministries dealing with income, religion, war, crime, public affairs, and public service appointments. Appointments to these ministries were split between the Manchu and Han and some Mongols to preserve the multicultural nature of the regime . Various religions existed, including Confucianism, Taoism, Islam, and Christianity mixed with Buddhism.

These ministries mostly dealt with routine administrative affairs, but major decisions were made in the courts where the nobleman and the emperor's family were present .

Culture and Art :

Despite the technology in printing and production, the Qing dynasty did not give Chinese culture its peak. Artistic production flourished with artists from the previous dynasty, the Ming people. For example, porcelain, painting and novels took their place in culture. But it was the Ming artists who inspired them all.

The Qing's arrival from Manchuria resulted in many measures being taken to ensure cultural harmony throughout China. Kangxi insisted that the Manchurian hairstyle be worn in the army, and Chinese women were ordered not to tie their feet. Reigning from 1735 to 1796, Qianlong maintained official Confucian and Manchurian culture and had all books critical of these cultures burned.

The Kangxi Dictionary, which standardized the Chinese alphabet, is one of the important developments in this period. Kangxi also took an interest in western musical instruments and technology and employed westerners at his court.

World Trade :

Trade with the West was a source of wealth for China, but it caused the empire to decline. After 1757 Canton (now Guangzhou) was the only place allowed to trade with the west. The British, for example, would receive huge shipments of tea from the Chinese.

Also during this period and during Qianlong's reign, China was in decline. Europe was getting stronger. The Qianlong refused to do any further trade with the Europeans . As the Chinese people, he saw himself as superior to them. After 1796, he could not meet with any European emperor.

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Declining Qing Empire :

Monetary Situation :

During the Qianlong period, the Chinese State spent a lot of money on its ministers and armies. Tax rates were very low and the booming population was putting too much pressure on land, government and available resources.

Modernization efforts were increasingly hampered by conservative politicians, and there was much corruption during Qianlong's reign . This meant that the money was not spent on important things.

War :

The 19th century was always spent with war in China.

The most important were perhaps the two Opium Wars with England . Opium was popular in China, and British traders were trying to sell large quantities of opium to China to make money. The drugs were banned when there was an addiction epidemic in China. This put an end to this lucrative trade of the British. This led to war, first in 1840 and then in 1856. When the war ended with Britain's victory, many foreigners entered the country, which weakened the Qing rule.

In 1860, as the Russian Empire flourished, it reincorporated the Amur River. And in 1894, China fought Japan for control over Korea. Japan won the war and China lost its ports and land.

Rebel :

In 1850-1864, China was shaken by the Taiping rebellion , led by Christian Hong Xiuquan in the city of Nanjing for ten years . Close to twenty million people are thought to have died as a result of this revolt, and unfortunately it is said to have inspired similar revolts for the next half century .

The Boxer Rebellion , which took place in 1900, is one of the most important of these rebellions. This revolt against the Europeans was supported by the then Qing ruler Empress Dowager Cixi. The main purpose of the revolt was to expel foreigners from the country. However, the uprising resulted in eight states occupying and destroying this country to protect their colonial interests in the country.

Drop :

As a result of all these events, Dowager Cixi fled to Manchuria. He returned a year later, in 1902, but the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 overthrew his successor. And the anti-Qing revolutionaries established a new republic. This republic opened the doors of the rise of the famous Mao Zedong.

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Extra History of Qing Empire / The Greatest Empires

Conclusion :

We learned basic information about the history of the Chinese empire, one of the great empires in history . Why not the Mongols and the Ottoman Empire now ? If you want to learn about these great empires, read our related articles!

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