History of Roman Empire : this a most searched topic at Google now days. Every one wants to know about Roman Empire, how this empire rise, their achievements and fall of Roman Empire. Today we will discuss all about this Greatest Empire.  


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Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire (395-1453 AD) :

Who re-established the Byzantine city and place in the center of the Roman Empire,  Constantine 'tour. While the Roman Emperor  Theodos I was  dying, he divided his country between his two sons, and Eastern Roman lands fell to Arkadius. Since the center of Eastern Rome was the Byzantine city, this empire was called the Byzantine Empire. Various dynasties came to power in the Byzantine Empire, which continued throughout the Middle Ages.

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Theodosius (Theodos) Line (395-518) :

This dynasty  begins with Arkadius . Arcadius' father was named  Thodosius  , so he took this name. During this dynasty, religious debates and religious divisions arose. The Goths, which became a great danger in Byzantium   , were sent to Western Rome by being crushed together during the  Byzantine Emperor  Zenon's time (488). The Istanbul Walls were rebuilt  by Emperor  Tehodosius . Emperor Tehodosius also collected the edicts of all emperors since Constantine in   a journal called Codex Theodosianus . He laid the foundation of the Byzantine University.  This dynasty, which had to pay taxes to the Huns during Attila's time, after Attila's death They  got rid of the Hun danger by killing Dengizik too.


Justinian Dynasty (518-610) :

This dynasty was  founded by Justin, an Illyrian peasant. After the death of Anastas, the last emperor of the Theodosian line,  without leaving an heir or heir, Justin, who was the commander of the Hassa army at that time, pressured the senate and declared himself emperor. After the death of the old Justin, his nephew  Justinian  succeeded him (527). However, the nephews of the previous Emperor Anastas and their Green Party took action to overthrow Justinian with great propaganda. This revolution, known as the Nika Revolution in history,  was led by General Beliserus. was bloodily suppressed. Anastas' nephews were executed. Justinian made peace in 532, ending the ongoing wars with Persia. Then, by sending General Belicerus to North Africa, he put an end to the Vandal Kingdom (533). However, the Byzantine dominance here could be achieved in 548. Returning from the Vandal campaign in 533, the General sent Belizerus to Italy against the Ostrogoths . Belizerus conquered Sicily and Naples and advanced northward and took Ravenna , the center of the Ostrogothic Kingdom.

 General Narses , who was sent to Italy after the return of Belizerus, ended the   Ostrogothic Kingdom in 554. In 554, he sent Liberius , one of his generals  , to Spain. He also made the Visigoths accept his sovereignty. Juistinian also  established a commission of jurists under the chairmanship of his friend  Tribonianus , and   had the law document called Codex Justinian prepared. After Justinian died in 565, the empire he founded began to shake. The Byzantine throne passed into the hands of another dynasty.

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Heraclius Dynasty (610-717) :

This dynasty  was founded by the young Heraclius , son of Heraclius , the  Governor of Carthage  . After  repulsing the attack of the Avar Turks, who besieged Bizas under the command of Heraclius  Bayan Kagan (626), he marched on the Sassanids and recaptured the Byzantine lands previously captured by the Sassanids. During this dynasty, Muslim Arabs besieged Istanbul for the first time (673-680).


The Isabrian Dynasty (717-802) :

During the second Byzantine siege of the Muslims in 717, Leon from Isavria, who was in Anatolia,   came to Istanbul with his army and became the Emperor with a military coup  . Leon took the throne with his name. The Umayyads returned after a three-year siege. The most important event in this dynasty was religious quarrels and the icon issue. Icon Hz. Jesus' mother It is the name given to the pictures of the Virgin Mary and other Christian elders. The Byzantines revered these images as if they were worshiping, the situation almost resembled idolatry. Those who had studied the Bible did not welcome this behavior. After the siege of Istanbul was lifted.

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 Leon III ordered all icons to be thrown out of the churches by an ordinance. Later Emperors went even further. This situation also spread to the public. The people of Rumelia were icon lovers, while the people of Anatolia became icon-breakers. VIII. century  Queen Iron he had the icons freed again by convening a consul, but the Emperors who came to the throne after him banned them again.  He was released again during the time of Empress Theodora . During this period, long wars were fought with the Abbasids.


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Amorion Dynasty (802-867) :

Amorion  II. By  killing Michael V. Leon, he established his true lineage on the Byzantine throne. During this dynasty, the Abbasids won great victories against Byzantium. The  islands of Sicily  and  Crete fell into the hands of the Muslims. The success of this dynasty was that they made the  Bulgarians Christian.


Macedonian Dynasty (867-1057) :

The founder of this dynasty was Vasil I, a horse trainer. Over time, he was taken to the palace and elevated. Emperor of the Last Amorion  III. He took the throne of Byzantium by killing Michael . Vasil I recaptured Crete from the Muslims. Emperors from this dynasty  Nikefor Phokas ,  Jean Cimişkez  and  II. Vasil recaptured Erzurum, Malatya, Nusaybin, Cilicia, a large part of Syria and Cyprus, which had been captured by the Muslims. II. In the time of Vasil, the Bulgarian threat was stopped. Vasil “Bulgaraktanos/Bulgarian Kıran” for his great massacres against the  Bulgarians took the title. During this dynasty, the Russians accepted Christianity and joined the Byzantine Church. Muslim Turks entered Anatolia in the last days of this dynasty.


Dynasty of Ducas (1057-1081) :

During this dynasty, turmoil continued in Byzantium. Romanos Diogenes, the most famous ruler of this dynasty  , was defeated by the Seljuk Turks under the command of Sultan Alparslan in Manzikert on August 26, 1071. After this war, the Turks conquered all Anatolia up to the Marmara and Aegean Seas.


Komnenian Dynasty (1081-1885) :

Aleksi Komnen I, who seized the Byzantine throne with a revolution  , took back the shores of Marmara from the Turks. He encouraged the Crusades. He took some lands back from the Turks by taking advantage of the Crusades that started.  During the reign of Manuel Komnen , the Crusader Principality of Antioch, the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, and the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate for a while recognized the high dominance of Byzantium. However, later Seljuk Sultan II. Kılıç Arslan  defeated Manuel Komnen in the  Battle of Myryekefalon (17 September 1176), and put an end to this superiority of Byzantium.


Angelos Dynasty (1186-1204) :

After the failure of the Komnenian lineage against the Turks,  Isak Angelos seized the Byzantine throne with a revolution. However, internal turmoil continued. Moreover, IV. The Crusader Commander  Bonifas  took advantage of the opportunity and enabled the Latins to capture Byzantium. Byzantium was horribly plundered and destroyed by the Latins.

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Latin Empire (1204-1261) :

Boudouin, Count of Flanders, who had come with the Crusaders,   was proclaimed Emperor. Meanwhile, one of the Byzantine generals,  Teodor Laskaris, had escaped to Iznik, and  Alexi Komnen, a descendant of the  Komnenians , fled to Trabzon, where they established the Iznik Greek Empire and the Trabzon Greek Empire. The Iznik Greek Empire did not leave the Latins alone. Meanwhile, the Nicaean Empire had passed from the hands of the Laskaris family to the  Paleologs .


Dynasty of Paleologists (1261-1453) :

VIII, who conquered the Iznik Greek Empire. Mihail Paleolog took Istanbul from the hands of the Latins and expelled the Latins from the city. External attacks gradually increased, especially the border principalities subject to the Seljuk State were expanding their lands against Byzantium. Byzantine Emperors could not control other places within the city. Istanbul, which was besieged one after the other during the Ottoman Empire, was finally   conquered by Fatih Sultan Mehmed on 29 May 1453 and the Byzantine Empire was ended. The last Byzantine Emperor  Constantine  died during the war.


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Byzantine Civilization :

There was an Emperor at the head of the state, the Empire passed from father to son. In Byzantine history, it was seen that women were sometimes empresses. The Senate was the place where laws, religious affairs, and big cases were discussed and debated. It was originally  divided into provinces called the Imperial Diocése. Then It was divided into themes in which military and civil administration were gathered in one hand in the 19th  century  .

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A large part of the Byzantine army consisted of mercenaries. Their most important  weapon was the so-called Grejuva  (Greek fire). Thanks to this weapon, Istanbul was saved from falling into the hands of other nations many times.

Byzantium was mostly  built during the reign of Justinian. He built the Hagia Sophia Church (532-537) by architects named  Antemus  and  Izidor. The Basilica Cistern from the time of Justinian, the Hagia Irene Church behind the Hagia Sophia built during the reign of Constantine, the Hora Church (Kariye Mosque), famous for its mosaics, and the Gilded Gate in Yedikule are important architectural works.