Biography of Sultan Murad III / Extra History of Sultan Murad III

Biography of Sultan Murad III. Welcome to Biography category. Today we will discuss life and achievements of Sultan Murad III. In this article i will share Extra History of Sultan Murad III.

Biography of Sultan Murad III

  • Title: Sultan
  • Date of birth: July 4, 1546
  • Date of death: January 16, 1595
  • City: Manisa
  • Country: Turkey
  • Zodiac sign: Crab

Sultan Murad III was born on July 4, 1546 in the Bozdag plateau of Manisa . His father is Sultan Selim II and his mother is Afife Nur Banu Sultan. His mother is Venetian. Sultan Murad III was a medium-sized sultan with a round face, brown beard, hazel eyes and white skin. He was very generous and loved to help people. Sultan Murad III, who had a compassionate personality, spoke Arabic and Persian very well. After his father was appointed to the governorship of Karaman from Manisa sanjak principality in 1558, his grandfather was appointed to the Alaşehir sanjak principality by Suleiman the Magnificent. After his father, Sultan Selim II, became the sultan, he was reassigned to the sanjakbey of Manisa. He took lessons from the most valuable scholars of the time in Manisa, where he was during his princedom. He is one of the most learned sultans among the Ottoman sultans. Upon the death of his father, Sultan Selim II, he came to Istanbul from Manisa and came to the throne on 22 December 1574. However, he did not get involved in state affairs much like his father, Sultan Selim II. Bureaucracy and government rather Sokollu Mehmed Pashawas managed by.

 The experience and acumen of Sokullu and the administration style of Sultan Murad II played a major role in this. Sultan Murad III, who was fond of drinks and entertainment assemblies, never left Istanbul during his reign and was influenced by the women in the palace. The reign of women, which would affect a period of the Ottoman Empire in the following years, began during her reign. Sultan Murad III, who remained on the throne for 20 years at the age of 29, suffered a stroke and died on January 16, 1595. He was buried in the courtyard of the Hagia Sophia Mosque. III, whose weight was felt by Sokullu Mehmed Pasha. During the reign of Murad, the Ottoman lands reached their widest limits.He increased the 15th 162,151 square kilometers of country land, which he inherited from his father Selim II, to 19,902,000 square kilometers. Friendly relations were also developed with the British. With the first British Capitulation, a permanent British ambassador was sent to Istanbul. Relations with Protestant England were developed against the crusader alliance that the Pope might establish in Catholic Europe. Later, the Netherlands will be included in this alliance. During the reign of Sultan Murad III, who transferred state affairs to Sokullu, women in the palace began to interfere in state affairs. This situation continued to increase after Sokullu's death.

Poland Relations :

The French King of Poland, Henry, came to the throne by the will of Sultan Selim II, leaving his other European rivals behind. The reason why the Ottoman Empire tried to dominate in the Polish administration was to have two allies neighboring Austria. There were already good relations with the French that started during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. Dominating the Polish administration would make the Ottoman Empire stronger against Austria. But after a while, when the throne of France became vacant, Henry left Poland and went to France to become the king. Upon the power vacuum in Poland, Sultan Murad III intervened in the situation. At the request of Sultan Murad III, Erdel Bey Bathary became king of Poland. An agreement was made with Poland and as a result of these political developments, the northern border of the Ottoman Empire became safe.

Relations With Venice :

During the reign of Sultan Murad III, Ottoman-Venetian relations continued in peace. Venetian ships under the command of Admiral Emmo, which attacked the Ottoman ship that brought the wife and children of the Tripoli Governor Ramazan Pasha, who was killed by the rebels in a janissary revolt in 1584, to Istanbul, off the coast of Kefalonia, disrupted the peace. About 250 Ottoman soldiers on board were killed, women were raped and then thrown into the sea. When this event was heard in Istanbul, an ultimatum was sent to the Venetian Senate. The Venetian Senate, fearing the power of the Ottoman Empire, had to comply with the conditions and Admiral Emmo was immediately hanged and sent to Istanbul. In addition, Ramazan Pasha's wife, children and property were handed over to the Preveze judge. A second ultimatum sent to the Venetian Senate stated: “Pirates of Venice, They will never again touch any ship containing the Ottoman population. If such an event occurs, a navy will be sent to Venice.” The Venetian Senate, against the determination of Sultan Murad III, sent three envoys one after the other to Istanbul and tried to settle the issues peacefully.

Relations With England :

Ottoman-British relations first started in the commercial field. Queen Elizabeth of England sent ambassadors to Istanbul a couple of times and addressed Sultan Murad II as "Great Turk". In Murad III, the Sultan said to the queen, “We are not only the friend of the Queen of England, but also the protector.” The first ambassador sent by England, William Harborne, was admitted to the presence on April 24, 1583 and brought gifts to the sultan. Until then, besides the Genoese, Venice, Dubrovnik merchants, the French merchant had the right to trade in the Ottoman ports with the Capitulation granted in 1569. The British ambassador sent by Queen Elizabeth also came to Istanbul to obtain the capitulation necessary for trade in the Ottoman ports. The merchants of the states that did not have a Capitulation, except Venice and Genoa, were coming to the Ottoman ports with the French flag. The Ottoman government, which started to turn away from the Catholics with the Bartalameos massacre of 1572, first got closer to the Protestant England in order to break the strategic war material embargo (such as gunpowder, tin, cannonball) imposed by the Pope. Thus, the Anglo-French rivalry in the Mediterranean began. Many political interests in the Ottoman Empire started from this competition.

The Conquest Of Morocco :

The Ottoman Empire had annexed all of North Africa up to Morocco. When Sultan Murad III came to the throne, power struggles were taking place in Morocco. Morocco was divided into those who were in favor of the Ottoman Empire and those in favor of Portugal. The Ottoman forces under the command of Ramazan Pasha, who went to Morocco at the request of the Moroccan Sultan in 1578, defeated the Portuguese forces in the war in Vadi-üs Sebil, and thus the Moroccan Sultanate was taken under the Ottoman protection.

Relations With Iran :

Shah Ismail, the son of Shah Tahmasb in Iran, did not abide by the peace treaties between the Ottoman Empire and Iran and succeeded in attracting some Ottoman emirs to his side. The Ottoman government instructed the Beylerbey of Van and wanted peace to be established there. The fact that Iran's governor of Luristan took refuge in the Ottoman state deteriorated the tense relations. In the meantime, Shah Ismail died and fights for the throne began in Iran. Van Beylerbeyi, who wanted to take advantage of this situation, stated that Iran should be attacked. Sokullu Mehmed Pasha was not a supporter of war, but Sinan Pasha and Lala Mustafa Pasha, who were active in the administration, wanted to be the commander-in-chief of the Iran campaign. The first phase of the Iran war, which was started despite Sokullu, lasted for twelve years between 1577-1589. Turkish troops under the command of Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha defeated the Iranian forces in Çıldır. After this war, all of Georgia was conquered. Tbilisi was turned into an Ottoman province (1578). In the same year, Shirvan joined the Ottoman lands. Upon these developments, Iran had to ask for peace. According to the Ferhad Pasha Treaty (Istanbul) made on March 21, 1590; Kars, Tabriz, Tbilisi, Ganja, Sehrizur (Azerbaijan, Georgia, Dagestan and the North Caucasus) would remain in the Ottoman Empire. With this treaty, the Ottoman state reached its widest borders in the east.

Relations With Austria :

An eight-year peace treaty was signed with Austria in 1590. In 1593, Austria, considering that Telli Hasan Pasha's march on the Uskuk formed by the irregulars, was a reason for war, broke the peace. Austrian Emperor II. Rudolf not only did not pay the tax he was paying, but also encouraged the lords of Wallachia, Erdel and Moldavia to revolt. Telli Hasan Pasha was besieging the Siska fortress on the Croatian border. At the end of the fierce fighting, the Ottoman forces suffered heavy losses. Along with Hasan Pasha and thousands of soldiers, the Sanjakbeyi of Herzegovina was also martyred. Thereupon, at the insistence of Sinan Pasha, war was declared against Austria in 1593. At the end of the wars, the Austrians crossed the Danube and attacked Ruse, and the Muslim people were persecuted. When Sultan Murad III passed away, the war with Austria was continuing.

Zoning Studies (Architecture) :

Sultan Murad III, who was also interested in the development of the country, added some mansions to the Topkapi palace. Mimar Sinan, who had signed many works during the reigns of his father, Sultan Selim II, and his grandfather, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, continued his successful works during the reign of Sultan Murad III until his death. Azapkapı Sokullu Mosque, Izmit Pertev Pasha Mosque and Complex, Ilgın Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque, Üsküdar Old Valide Mosque and Complex, Şemsi Ahmed Pasha Mosque and Madrasa, Tophane Kılıç Ali Pasha Mosque, Sebil and Bath, Manisa Muradiye Mosque, İvaz Efendi Mosque and Ramazan Efendi Mosque is one of the works of Sultan Murad III commissioned by Mimar Sinan. After the death of Mimar Sinan in 1588, there was a certain decrease in building activity. Also, Kars castle was built during the reign of Sultan Murad III. The walls of the Kaaba in Mecca were made of marble, and a madrasah was built in Medina. Toptaşı Asylum in Istanbul is one of the works built during the reign of Sultan Murad III.

Sons: Mehmed the Third, Selim Bayezid, Mustafa, Osman, Cihangir, Abdullah, Abdurrahman, Abdullah, Hasan, Ahmed, Yakub, Alemşah, Yusuf, Hüseyin, Korkud, Ali, İshak, Ömer, Alaüddin, Davud.

Daughters: Ayşe Sultan, Fatma Sultan, Mihrimah Sultan, Fahriye Sultan.

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