Biography Of Sultan Bayezid II / Extra History of Sultan Bayezid II

Biography of Sultan Bayezid II. Welcome to Biography category. Today we will discuss life and achievements of  Sultan Bayezid II. In this article i will share Extra History of Sultan Bayezid II.


Biography Of Sultan Bayezid II


  • Title: Sultan
  • Date of birth: December 3, 1448
  • Date of death: May 26, 1512
  • Country: Turkey
  • Zodiac sign: Arrow


Sultan Bayezid II was born on December 3, 1448 in Dimetoka. His father is the world sultan Fatih Sultan Mehmed Han and his mother is a Turkish girl named Mükrime Hatun. He was tall, broad chested and had a strong body. His face was round and his eyes were hazel. He was brave and daring. At the same time, he was a very gentle and religious sultan.Because his father, Fatih Sultan Mehmed, was interested in science, he gave a good education to his son, Şehzade Bayezid. He had the most famous scholars of that period teach lessons and made him learn all Islamic sciences in the best way. Click for enlarged version When Sultan Bayezid II was seven years old, he was appointed to the governorship of Amasya under the supervision of Hadım Ali Pasha. Amasya was an important scientific and cultural center since the Seljuk period. There were all conditions in this province for the raising of the princes who would become sultans. Sultan Bayezid II was called Bayezid-i Veli because he was very devoted to his religion. Sultan Bayezid II would gather the poets to the palace and chat with them. Sultan Bayezid II, who was a very merciful sultan, often distributed alms to the poor. He knew Arabic and Persian very well. He also learned the Chagatai dialect and the Uighur alphabet.Besides Islamic sciences, he also studied mathematics and philosophy. Sultan Bayezid II, who had to leave the sultanate on April 24, 1512, lived for another month and died on May 26, 1512. 


Cem Sultan :

Upon the death of Fatih Sultan Mehmed on May 3, 1481, messengers were sent by Grand Vizier Karamani Mehmed Pasha to Şehzade Bayezid in Amasya and Cem Sultan in Konya. However, the messenger sent to Cem Sultan was caught by Anatolian Beylerbeyi Sinan Pasha on the way. Cem Sultan was able to learn of his father's death four days later. Upon these events, the janissaries rose up and killed Karamani Mehmed Pasha (May 4, 1481). They declared the son of Şehzade Bayezid, Korkut, who was in Istanbul, as the regent, and put him on the throne.Prince Bayezid took over the state administration as soon as he arrived in Istanbul on May 21, 1481. Cem Sultan, on the other hand, came to İnegöl on 27 May 1481 with his 4000 soldiers.

 Sultan Bayezid II sent an army under the command of Ayas Pasha against Cem Sultan. Cem Sultan, who won the war on 28 May, declared his sultanate in Bursa. He issued a khutbah in his own name and printed money. Cem Sultan, who sent a letter to Sultan Bayezid II soon after, offered to share the Ottoman lands equally. Taking action in the face of this unacceptable offer, Sultan Bayezid II marched against Cem Sultan with his army. Cem Sultan, who lost the war on the Yenişehir Plain, came to Konya. Realizing that he could not stay here either, Cem Sultan set out for Cairo, taking his family with him. While in Cairo, he went to the Hejaz during the Hajj season. Cem Sultan, who came back to Cairo after the pilgrimage, received a letter from his older brother, Sultan Bayezid II. In this letter, it was stated that if he renounced the sultanate, one million akçe would be paid to him. However, Cem Sultan did not accept this. Rejecting a second offer, Cem Sultan returned to his country. Cem Sultan, who besieged Konya on 27 May 1482, lifted the siege upon the approach of Sultan Bayezid II and went to Ankara. From there he was going to go back to Egypt, but the roads were blocked.Meanwhile, Pierre d'Aubusson, one of the Knights of Rhodes, invited him to Rhodes.

 Cem Sultan, who went to Rhodes on 29 July 1482, thought that he would leave the island whenever he wanted in accordance with the treaty. However, the rogue knights never allowed this and Cem Sultan began to live a prisoner life. The fall of Cem Sultan into the hands of the Rhodes knights was an unfortunate event both for him and for Ottoman history. Cem Sultan was later sent to France. Sultan Bayezid II, who saw Cem Sultan's transfer to another country from France as inconvenient for the Ottoman Empire, sent an envoy to France and demanded that Cem Sultan be kept in France. One of those who wanted to use Cem Sultan was Pope Innocent VIII.

 The Pope wanted a crusade against the Ottomans, using Cem Sultan as an excuse.However, when he was not successful in this, he offered Cem Sultan to become a Christian. In response, Cem Sultan answered him as follows: "I would not change my religion if you gave me the Ottoman Sultanate, not even the sultanate of the whole world". In a poem he wrote to his brother, Sultan Bayezid II, Cem Sultan calls out to him as follows: "You can sleep in the rose garden, from the inn with enthusiasm, I won't be laid in ashes, what's the reason in the hearth?" Why should I sink into ashes in it?) Sultan Bayezid the Second answers him as follows: "Because the state has been predestined for us, you should not give consent to discretion, why do you have to do this in Haccacü'l-Haremeynüm, Ya sultanat-i ​​mundaneye all this. What is the demand” (The sultanate was our destiny from time immemorial, but you did not consent to fate, what is the reason for this, You went to the pilgrimage and fell for the cause of cleaning yourself, So why so much ambition for the reign of the world” The case of Cem Sultan is the second biggest tragic event in Ottoman history after Yıldırım Bayezid was captured by Timur and imprisoned in an iron cage.

 Cem Sultan, who wanted to come back to Ottoman lands from Rumelia, lived a prisoner life for 13 years. He was last rescued from the Pope by the King of France, but died on the way within a week, probably due to poisoning. When he rejected the Pope's offer to fight the Ottoman state by commanding a crusade, Cem Sultan, who he thought did not understand the Pope's language, said to Cem Sultan: "Then, crawl here like a dog," and Cem Sultan said to the Pope: "It is worse than a dog in your hands. it wouldn't be, or it would be nice” and embarrassed the Pope. For the maintenance expenses of Cem Sultan, the Pope receives the 40th anniversary of Sultan Bayezid the Second. He managed to get more than 000 gold coins and stopped the Ottoman conquests with threats to release Cem Sultan. This event also constituted an important basis for the murder of the Prince in the future. After all these events, Cem Sultan passed away on February 25, 1495.

 Sultan Bayezid II was very upset by this event and declared three days of mourning and led the funeral prayer in Cem Sultan's absence. Sultan Bayezid II tried very hard to get the body of Cem Sultan. In January 1499, 4 years after his death, Cem Sultan's funeral was brought to the Ottoman lands and buried next to his brother Şehzade Mustafa in Bursa. Thus, his years-long adventure came to an end, and at least his body was buried in his native land. This event also constituted an important basis for the murder of the Prince in the future. 


Progress in The Balkans :

Sultan Bayezid II started his political and military activities in Rumelia. Bosnia joined the Ottoman lands during the reign of Mehmed the Conqueror, and Herzegovina had not yet been captured. As a result of the raids made in 1483, this region definitely joined the Ottoman Empire. Moldavia was taxed. Kilya (15 July 1484) and Akkerman (9 August 1484) castles of Moldavia Principality were conquered. In 1491, great raids were organized into Hungary. Sultan Bayezid II set out on a Greek expedition on May 31, 1499. The Mamluk State's protection of Cem Sultan and interference in Anatolian affairs by being effective on Ramazanoğulları and Dulkadiroğulları Principalities, deteriorated the tense Ottoman-Mamluk relations. Wars were fought in 1485. No significant results were obtained from the wars. Places like Adana and Tarsus,


Safevi And Shah Kuli :

During the reign of Sultan Bayezid II, Iran was dominated by the Safavids. Shah Ismail, who took Tabriz in 1501, was getting stronger. He found many supporters for himself and his sect in Anatolia as well. He took many Turkmen masses with him. Shah Ismail, who showed his influence in Iran and Azerbaijan, began to seriously threaten the Ottoman Empire in Eastern Anatolia. Shah Ismail, who sent many Shiite propagandists to Anatolia, wanted to take Anatolia under his rule. Propaganda activities began to show their effect. On April 9, 1511, a supporter of Shah Ismail, named Shah Kulu, revolted on the sides of Hamideli and Teke. This revolt was suppressed with difficulty. Shah Kulu was caught and executed. This rebellion, which emerged in the last period of Sultan Bayezid II, dragged the country into depression. A struggle began among the princes against their fathers and against each other.


War With Venice :

With the conquest of Istanbul, the state that suffered the most in the economic field was Venice. During the reign of Mehmed the Conqueror, they were given capitulations and thus they left the Crusaders. However, Venice always followed an anti-Ottoman policy and from time to time provoked the people of the Peloponnese. Sultan Bayezid the Second decided to solve this problem from the root and take the remaining places in the hands of the Venetians. Inebahti (1499) and the castles of Moron, Koron and Navarino were captured with the siege made by land and sea. Upon the conquest of the Greek islands, the Venetians, realizing that they could not cope with the Ottomans, asked for peace. At the end of the peace treaties, the places conquered by the Ottomans were given to the Venetians again. 


Sehzade Selim :

Sultan Bayezid the Second had eight sons, except for Ahmet, Korkut and Selim, who died while their father was alive. The eldest of the survivors is Ahmet, the second is Korkut, and the youngest is Selim.'he said. Ahmet was in Amasya, Korkut was in Manisa, and Selim was in Trabzon as governors. In the second Bayezid Shah Ismail incident, the state affairs, which acted loosely, began to deteriorate. Selim, who received the news that his father would leave the throne, took action. On 3 August 1511, Prince Selim, who fought with his father in the Uğraş Deresi region, was defeated. The state officials wanted Şehzade Ahmed to be the sultan instead of Bayezid. The Janissaries, on the other hand, did not support Şehzade Ahmed. After Ahmed was not successful, the opponents of Selim invited Korkut this time and wanted him to be the sultan. Although Şehzade Korkut, who came to the Janissary corps, was respected, they said that they did not want to see anyone other than Selim as sultan. Sultan Bayezid II could not stand the pressure any longer.Trabzon Governor Şehzade Selim , who was invited to the Ottoman throne on April 19, 1512 , settled in the tent established in Yenibahçe. Sultan Bayezid II, who increased the Ottoman lands from 2,214,000 square kilometers to 2,375,000 square kilometers when he ascended the throne, abdicated on April 24, 1512.


Construction Works (ARCHITECTURE) :

Sultan Bayezid II had many beautiful architectural works and libraries built in Istanbul. In 1505, Istanbul Bayezid Mosque was opened for worship. On September 14, 1509, an earthquake known as the “Kiyamet-i Suğra-Little Apocalypse” occurred. This earthquake destroyed Istanbul. In 1510, Istanbul began to be rebuilt. Some of the works commissioned by Sultan Bayezid II are as follows; Istanbul Davud Pasha Mosque, Tokat Hatuniye Mosque, Çemberlitaş Atik Ali Pasha Mosque, Amasya Sultan Second Bayezid Complex, Amasya Bayezid Madrasa, Edirne Bayezid Mosque and Madrasa, Istanbul Bayezid Madrasa, Istanbul Şehzade Mosque. 

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