Biography of Sultan Murad I / Extra History of Sultan Murad I

Biography of Sultan Murad I. Welcome to Biography category. Today we will discuss life and achievements of  Sultan Murad I. In this article i will share Extra History of Sultan Murad I.

Biography of Sultan Murad I

  •  Title: Sultan Murad
  • Date of birth: 1326
  • Date of death: 1389
  • City: Bursa
  • Country: Turkey

Biography of Sultan Murad I :

Sultan Murad I was born in 1326 in Bursa . His father is Orhan Gazi and his mother is Nilüfer Hatun (Holofira), the daughter of one of the Byzantine Tekfurs. Sultan Murad I was tall, with a round face and a large nose. He had a thick and muscular body. He wore a headdress wrapped in a testar on his Mevlevi coin. She dressed very simply and liked a white dress with a red background.He received his first education from his mother, Nilüfer Hatun. He lived with scholars and artists in Bursa Madrasahs, where he later went to complete his education. Sultan Murad I was very kind, lovable and very good natured. He showed respect to scholars and craftsmen, and was compassionate to the poor and orphans.He was a genius soldier and statesman.

 Sultan Murad I, known as "King of the Sheikhs of Dervish Gazis, Murad Gazi", acted in a planned and programmed way throughout his life. Although Sultan Murad I was seen as an infidel and an enemy of Christ according to the Byzantine Church, he won the love of the Christian people living in the areas he conquered because he treated them better than the Pope. Sultan Murad I, who has been known as "Murad Hüdavendigar" since 1382, was martyred by being treacherously stabbed by Serbian King Lazar's son-in-law while visiting the battlefield after the First Kosovo War (1389).

Administrative Regulations :

The first kazasker appointments began during the reign of Sultan Murad Hüdavendigar. Çandarlı Kara Halil Pasha was appointed as the first kazasker, and Lala Şahin Pasha was appointed as the first governor from outside the sultan's family. One of the important works of Sultan Murad Hüdavendigar was enacting the Tımar Law. According to this, timar sipahis, also called provincial soldiers, which continued until the 17th century and constituted the backbone of the Ottoman army, were forming. During peacetime, the sipahis lived in the provinces and villages, ensuring security in the countryside, and in times of war, they formed a military force that could go on an expedition.Since these people made a living with the tithe from the agriculture in their villages, the state was able to keep a permanent army without any expense.

 In addition, the Pencik Law, which can be considered the foundation of the Janissary Corps, was also enacted during his reign (1361). With this law, Christian children who were taken captive from the conquered places began to be recruited into the Ottoman army as "devshirme". Çandarlı Kara Halil Pasha and Kara Rüstem Pasha made the first financial arrangements in the Ottoman Empire during his reign.Sultan Murad Hüdavendigar's whole life passed along the borders and on the battlefields. Sultan Murad Hüdavendigar, who made expeditions from Rumelia to Anatolia and from Anatolia to Rumeli without rest, won all 37 wars in which he personally participated. He worked in harmony with the commanders and governors under his command.Sultan Murad Hüdavendigar conquered Black Sea Ereğli in 1360.

 In 1361, he took back Ankara and Sultanönü, which were sold out during the change of throne, from the Ahis. Murad Hüdavendigar, who attaches great importance to friendship with neighboring states but also knows how to take advantage of opportunities, conquered Çorlu, Keşan, Dimetoka, Pınarhisar, Babaeski, Lüleburgaz castles and the vicinity of Komotini, Eski Zağra and Yenice in the same year.The main goal of Sultan Murad Hüdavendigar in Thrace was to take Edirne, which had a strategic importance. Thanks to the previous conquests in Thrace, any Byzantine aid to Edirne was prevented. Turkish troops under the command of Lala Şahin Pasha besieged Edirne. Greek and Bulgarian forces were defeated in the conflict. The city, which had been waiting for help for a while, had to surrender when it lost hope (1362).

The War Of The Serbia :

The conquest of Edirne opened the way for the Turks to the Balkan conquests. Lala Şahin Pasha entered Bulgaria and took Plovdiv, and Evrenos Bey, one of their commanders, took Serez (1363). Turks were settled in newly conquered places. The conquest of Edirne and Plovdiv caused a crusade to be organized. With the encouragement of Pope Urban V, Hungarians, Bosnians and Wallachians, especially Serbs and Bulgarians, prepared a large crusader army and took action on Edirne.Together with the army of Hacı İlbey, one of the Ottoman commanders, he took advantage of the situation of the enemies advancing irregularly along the Meriç valley. Hacı İlbey, who organized a night raid by dividing his forces into three, achieved a great victory (1364).With this victory, which went down in history as the Battle of the Serbian Sındık, the Turkish domination in Rumelia was finalized and the first Crusader Army was neutralized. Ottoman troops entered Bulgaria after the Battle of the Serbian Sea and conquered Upper Bulgaria. Realizing that he could not resist, Bulgarian King Yuvan Şişman accepted Ottoman Domination and gave his sister Maria to Murad Hüdavendigar (1369).

The Ottoman Army marched on Macedonia. With the Çirmen Victory in 1371, Macedonia joined the Ottoman lands. Serbian King Lazar, like the King of Bulgaria, accepted Ottoman domination and was subject to an annual tax. Turkish troops under the command of Çandarlı Hayreddin Pasha won the Thessaloniki Victory (1374). Nis (1375), Shtip, Monastery, Prilep (1382) were conquered. Ottoman troops raided into Albania and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Ohrid was conquered in 1385. In the same year, the Savra victory was won in Albania. A year later Sofia was conquered.Kütahya, Simav, Eğrigöz and Tavşanlı were given to the Ottomans due to the marriage of Şehzade Bayezid to Devlet Hatun, the daughter of Süleyman Shah, the ruler of Germiyan in 1381. In the same year, six cities were bought with money from the Hamidoğulları Principality. While the conquests in the Balkans continued, Murad Hüdavendigar also headed towards Anatolia. In 1386, the first Ottoman Karaman War was fought on the Konya Plain.

Kosovi War I :

The advances of the Turks in the Balkans caused a new Crusade to be organized. The Ottoman Army under the command of Vizier Çandarlı Ali Pasha neutralized the Bulgarians. The Turkish Army advanced and encountered the Crusaders in Kosovo. The superior crusader army was dispersed by the effect of the cannon used by the "Artillery Furnace" established by Sultan Murad Hüdavendigar. The cannon was used by the Turks for the first time in the First Kosovo War. After this war, Turkish dominance in the Balkans was strengthened, but Sultan Murad Hüdavendigar was martyred. Sultan Murad Hüdavendigar, who succeeded in increasing the state lands from 95,000 square kilometers to 500,000 square kilometers at the death of his father Orhan Gazi, was a great sultan.

Architectural :

Sultan Murad Hüdavendigar gave due importance to construction works as well as wars and conquests. He built mosques, madrasas and soup kitchens in Bursa. Bursa Hüdavendigar Mosque, Bursa Şehadet Mosque, Plovdiv Hüdavendigar Mosque and Gelibolu Hüdavendigar Mosque were among them. Sultan Murad Hüdavendigar, who also had the first Edirne Palace built, had many mosques, baths, inns, caravanserais, fountains and bridges built. The custom of saying salatu salutations from minarets started in his time.

Sons: Yakub Çelebi, Yıldırım Bayezid, Savcı Bey and İbrahim

Daughters: Nefise and Sultan Hatun

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