Biography of Sultan Mahmud II / Extra History of Sultan Mahmud II

 Biography of Sultan Mahmud II. Welcome to Biography category. Today we will discuss life and achievements of Sultan Mahmud II. In this article i will share Extra History of Sultan Mahmud II.


Biography of Sultan Mahmud II


  • Title: Sultan
  • Date of birth: 20 July 1785
  • Date of death: 1 July 1839
  • City: Istanbul
  • Country: Turkey
  • Zodiac sign: Crab


Sultan Mahmud II was born on 20 July 1785 in Istanbul. His father is Sultan Abdulhamid the First and his mother is Nakşidil Valide Sultan. He was of medium height, broad-shouldered, with a white beard, and an elegant and charming face. Like other Ottoman sultans, he received a strong education. He was personally busy with his education during the reign of Sultan Selim III. Sultan Mahmud II, who had a brave, cautious, patient and determined personality, was 23 years old when he ascended the throne on July 28, 1808, after the Alemdar Mustafa Incident. Sultan Mahmud II, who was a smart and knowledgeable person, had adopted the innovation movements in Europe.He gave due importance to the affairs of justice, had new laws and by-laws prepared, and for this reason he was given the title "Forensic". Sultan Mahmud II, who loved poetry, literature and science, and considered it necessary to wander among the people and listen to their troubles, tried to make the Ottoman Empire an advanced country both socially and in terms of civilization. Sultan Mahmud II could not get rid of the tuberculosis he caught and died at the age of 54 in the mansion of his brother Esma Sultan in Çamlıca, where he went to rest on July 1, 1839. He was buried in his tomb on Divan Yolu with a great funeral ceremony and the tears of the people.


Ottoman-Russian Relations : 

When Sultan Mahmud II came to the throne, the Ottomans were at war with the Russians. As a result of the treaty signed with England in 1809, it was decided to continue the war with the Russians. Due to the problems of the Russians with France and the Ottoman armies getting tired of the war that lasted for years, both states were forced to sign peace. With the Treaty of Bucharest signed on September 28, 1812, Russia would withdraw from Wallachia and Moldavia, and the Basrabia region would be left to the Russians. The Ottomans would not collect taxes from Bosnia and Wallachia for two years, and the Serbs would be free among themselves. Both Ottoman and Russian ships would be able to roam freely on the Danube. The left banks of the Prut and Danube rivers would be considered the border between the two countries.

Serbian Revolt Conquered in the time of Fatih, Serbia was very happy with the fair and tolerant administration of the Ottoman Empire. However, as a result of the provocations of Russia and Austria, the weakness of the Ottoman administration in the 17th century, the janissaries not treating the people well, and the nationalist movements that emerged after the French Revolution, the Serbian revolt broke out. Russia supported the Serbian revolt initiated by Black Yorgi in 1804. Since the Ottoman Empire was busy with the Russian war, the Serbian revolt could only be suppressed after 1812. With the Bucharest Treaty signed between the Ottomans and Russia, some concessions were given to the Serbs. Milos Obronovic led the second revolt in Serbia. The Ottoman State accepted Miloş as Serbian Prince. With the Treaty of Edirne made between 1828-29, Serbia became semi-independent.


The Navarin Event :

In the Ottoman Empire, which was a multinational state, the Greeks were also under the influence of the French Revolution. With the provocations of Russia and European states, the Greeks took action against the Ottoman Empire as a result of the efforts of the Etnik-i Eterya society. The aim of the Ethnic Etherian society was to re-establish the Byzantine Empire. This society, which was founded by Alexander İpsilanti, the aide of the Russian Tsar, could not act comfortably due to the presence of the Governor of Ioannina, Tepedelenli Ali Pasha. Taking advantage of Tepedelenli Ali Pasha's rebellion against the Ottoman rule, the Greeks revolted.

 This uprising, which started in Wallachia, was suppressed in a short time. The second rebellion broke out in Morea. In order to suppress this revolt, which expanded in a short time, the governor of Egypt, Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha, who was promised the governorships of Morea and Crete if successful, was appointed. Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha sent a strong army and navy under the command of his son İbrahim Pasha to Morea and ensured the suppression of the rebellion. The suppression of the Greek Revolt caused great distress in Europe. In addition, it was not in England's interest that Mora and Crete fell into the hands of Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha. The establishment of a weak Greek State was more in line with the interests of England and Russia. England, Russia and France made an agreement between them and demanded that Greece be given independence.

 After Sultan Mahmud II refused this request, the Ottoman navy anchored in the Navarino Port of Morea was burned. In addition, it was not in England's interest that Mora and Crete fell into the hands of Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha. The establishment of a weak Greek State was more in line with the interests of England and Russia. England, Russia and France made an agreement between them and demanded that Greece be given independence. After Sultan Mahmud II refused this request, the Ottoman navy anchored in the Navarino Port of Morea was burned. In addition, it was not in England's interest that Mora and Crete fell into the hands of Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha. The establishment of a weak Greek State was more in line with the interests of England and Russia. England, Russia and France made an agreement between them and demanded that Greece be given independence. After Sultan Mahmud II refused this request, the Ottoman navy anchored in the Navarino Port of Morea was burned.


Edrine Agreement :

Russia declared war against the Ottoman Empire when Sultan Mahmud II demanded war compensation for the events that resulted in the burning of the Ottoman fleet in Navarin. In the meantime, Sultan Mahmud II abolished the Janissary Corps and established a new military organization named Asakiri Mansuri Muhammediye instead. This army, which has not yet completed its organization, could not show a significant presence against the Russian forces. Having occupied Wallachia and Moldavia, the Russians descended to the Danube. Transcending the Balkans, Russia advanced as far as Edirne in the west and Erzurum in the east. Upon these developments, the Ottoman Empire demanded peace. At the end of the Treaty of Edirne with the Russians, independence was given to Greece. Concessions were granted to Wallachia, Moldavia and Serbia. The Russians gave back the places they occupied. Russian merchant ships were granted the right of way through the straits.


Kavalali Revolt :

Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha was one of the volunteers who went to Egypt to save Egypt occupied by Napoleon. He was not literate, but he was an intelligent person. Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha, who also had military skills, ensured that the headless soldier was brought under a certain discipline in Cairo, and after his successes, he became the governor of Egypt (1804). Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha was a valuable statesman who had important services during his governorship. He had eliminated the slave lords. With the support of the French, he established a strong army and navy, opened irrigation channels, gave importance to agriculture and ensured the development of Egypt.

 Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha helped Sultan Mahmud II during the Peloponnese revolt on the condition that the governorships of Mora and Crete be given to him. Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha, who suppressed the Mora revolt, Despite the Ottoman Empire's request for help in the Ottoman-Russian wars, it did not send any force. Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha, who wanted the governorship of Syria instead of the governorship of Morea, occupied Syria after this request was rejected. İbrahim Pasha, son of Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha, took Syria during the rebellion. İbrahim Pasha, who crossed the Taurus Mountains, defeated the Ottoman forces in Adana and Konya. After these successes, there was no power left to stop Mehmet Ali Pasha's forces until Istanbul.

 Sultan Mahmud II asked the Russians for help. The British and the French, who were uneasy about the arrival of the Russian navy in Istanbul, ensured the signing of a peace treaty between Egypt and the Ottoman state. According to the Kütahya agreement signed between the Ottoman State and the Egyptian governor Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha, Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha was given the governorship of Syria as well as the governorship of Mora and Crete, and his son İbrahim Pasha was given the governorship of Adana as the governorship of Jeddah. The presence of a strong government in Egypt did not suit the British. Because Mehmet Ali Pasha was preventing the British from doing business in this region. Believing that this problem would be solved by the Ottoman Empire's domination in that region again, England provoked Sultan Mahmud II against Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha. In the war with the Ottoman army in Nizip, the Ottoman army was defeated once again. Captain-ı Derya Ahmet Pasha handed over the Ottoman Navy to Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha (1839). After the wars of the Ottoman Empire against its own governor, neither army nor navy remained.


The Straits :

During the revolt of Sultan Mahmud II, Mehmed Ali Pasha signed the Treaty of Hünkar Iskelesi (1833) with the Russians who came to the straits. With this treaty signed, the following articles were accepted; 

1- Both the Ottoman Empire and Russia would help each other when they entered a war. 

2- When the Ottoman Empire faced the danger of war, Russia would send forces to the Ottoman Empire. 

3- When there was an attack against Russia, the Ottoman Empire would close the Dardanelles and Istanbul Straits and prevent other countries' navies from opening to the Black Sea.

4- Russia would not have to deal with attacks from the south by sea. 

5- This treaty was to remain in force for eight years. This treaty is the last treaty signed by the Ottoman state using its sovereign rights over the straits.

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