Biography of Sultan Abdulmecid / Extra History of Sultan Abdulmecid Mecid

 Biography of Sultan Abdulmecid. Welcome to Biography category. Today we will discuss life and achievements of Sultan Abdulmecid. In this article i will share Extra History of Sultan Abdulmecid.

Biography of Sultan Abdulmecid

  • Title: Sultan
  • Date of birth: April 25, 1823
  • Date of death: June 25, 1861
  • Country: Turkey
  • Zodiac sign: Bull

Sultan Abdulmecid was born on April 25, 1823. His father is Sultan Mahmud II and his mother is the Georgian Bezm-i Alem Valide Sultan. His mother is Georgian. Sultan Abdulmecid had reformist ideas as he received an education and upbringing in line with his father's desire. He had a fascination with the western world. Upon the death of his father, he sat on the Ottoman throne when he was only 17 years old. He wanted the European way of life to be spread throughout the country for the progress of the state. He gained fame as the sultan of the Tanzimat Period due to the Gülhane Hatt-ı Hümayun, which he declared in the fourth month of his reign. Sultan Abdulmecid the First was a sultan remembered with admiration and affection by western writers. Sultan Abdulmecid the First, who was a fair, compassionate, reformist and innovative person, started using alcohol from a very young age. Sultan Abdulmecid the First, who died on June 25, 1861, at the age of 39, due to tuberculosis in Istanbul, was buried in his grave next to Yavuz Sultan Selim's tomb.While Sultan Mahmud II was on his deathbed, Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha, who had revolted against the Ottoman Empire, defeated the Ottoman forces at Nizip.

 Sultan Abdulmecid the First came to the throne in such a complex environment. The Egypt Question became a European problem after the Russian fleet came to Istanbul in compliance with the Hünkar Iskelesi Treaty.European states, especially England, Austria, Prussia and Russia, organized a conference to solve the Egypt Question between the Ottoman State and the Egyptian Governor Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha. The European States did not want a strong government in Egypt. They took the side of the Ottoman State against Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha and in this environment the London Convention was signed (1840).According to this; Egypt would remain attached to the Ottoman Empire, but Mehmed Ali Pasha and his sons would continue to rule. Egypt was to pay a tax of 80,000 gold. Syria, Adana and Crete were again left to Ottoman rule.When the Hünkar İskelesi Treaty expired, a new conference was held in London (1841).

 In addition to the Ottoman Empire, Russia, France, England, Prussia and Austria attended the meeting. According to the resolutions taken at the conference, the sovereignty right in the Straits would belong to the Ottoman State, but no warships would pass through the straits during peacetime.With this treaty, France and England ensured their security in the Mediterranean, and restrictions were imposed on the unconditional rights of the Ottoman Empire over the straits. Russia, on the other hand, had lost its superiority over the straits with the Hünkar Iskelesi Treaty.

Tanzimat Edict :

The Tanzimat movements were a programmed innovation and cultural movement inspired by Europe in order to bring a western way of thinking and management to the Ottoman Empire. This movement started in the years when Sultan Mahmud II was the sultan.Mustafa Reşit Pasha, who was taken from the London Embassy by Sultan Abdulmecid the First and brought to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministry of Foreign Affairs), was a statesman who knew European politics well. He made Sultan Abdulmecid accept that the Tanzimat movement was different from the reforms made until today.Tanzimat edict; It was announced by Mustafa Reşit Pasha on November 3, 1839, at a meeting held in the Gülhane Garden of the Topkapı Palace and attended by foreign ambassadors and statesmen.

 Tanzimat edict is also called Tanzimat-ı Hayriye or Gülhane Hatt-ı Humayun in our history.The important innovations brought by the Tanzimat Fermanı were as follows; The security of life, property and honor of everyone, Muslim or non-Muslim, will be guaranteed by the state, taxes will be collected regularly according to everyone's income, military service will be according to a certain order, courts will be open to everyone and no one will be executed without a court decision, everyone will have property and property. and it would be ensured that he could leave it as an inheritance, bribery and favor would be removed, and it would be accepted that the power of law was above all power.The Tanzimat Fermanı can be accepted as the starting point of the constitutional order in the Ottoman State. With this edict, Sultan Abdulmecid the First acknowledged that there was a power above his own. With the Tanzimat Fermanı, some rights were given to minorities. Using these rights as an excuse, the European states continued to interfere in the internal affairs of the Ottoman Empire. However, Tanzimat Fermanı was declared to prevent such interventions in a sense.

Crimea War :

Although the Tanzimat Fermanı did not receive the attention it deserved in the Ottoman Empire, it made a sound in Europe. At this time, Russia, which started to advance along the Danube, wanted to put an end to the Ottoman lands and to divide these lands among the European states.In addition, Russia wanted the rights of the Ottoman Orthodox to be left to itself. But Russia did not hold the account. England and France did not accept this plan and took sides from the Ottoman Empire in the face of the Russian attack. The Russians were defeated by the Ottoman forces supported by the British and French forces, and Sevastopol was captured (1855). Tsar Alexander the Second, who took the throne instead of the Russian Tsar Nicolay the First, who committed suicide because of the defeats he suffered against the Ottoman Empire, had to ask for peace. According to the Paris Agreement made in 1856; The Ottoman Empire would be considered a European state, and its lands would be under the guarantee of European states. There would be no warships of either side in the Black Sea. The parties were to give back to each other the places they had taken.

 Edict of reform :

 The Reform Edict was declared to prevent the Ottoman Empire from interfering in the internal affairs of Russia and Europe, although it was an internal regulation. This edict was read and announced in the presence of representatives of foreign states in Istanbul, right after the start of the Paris Conference. The important points brought by the edict were:– Freedom of religion and sect will be ensured, buildings such as schools, churches and hospitals will be repaired.- Muslims and non-Muslims will be considered equal before the law– New assemblies will be established in the Patriarchate and the decisions taken by these assemblies will enter into force after they are approved by the Ottoman Empire.– All nationalities would be accepted equally to state services, schools and military service.– Taxes will be taken equally, tax farming procedure will be abolished– Foreigners would also be able to own property within the borders of the Ottoman Empire.With this edict, non-Muslims were given more rights, and although the European states accepted with the Paris Agreement that they would not interfere in the internal affairs of the Ottoman Empire, they did not keep their promises and interfered in the internal affairs of the Ottoman Empire, using this edict as an excuse. Sultan Abdulmecid, who died at the age of thirty-eight, is the first sultan to acquire European culture among the Ottoman sultans. He always helped the movements for the Europeanization of the Ottoman Empire in all respects, and despite the decrease in the sultan's authority and authority as a result of these movements, he did not object to this situation. 

Zoning Studies (ARCHITECTURE) :

Sultan Abdulmecid, who ensured the creation of important architectural structures during his reign, had Beşiktaş Küçük Mecidiye Mosque, Fatih Hırka-i Şerif Mosque, Humus Ulu Mosque, Fuat Pasha Mosque and Tomb, Dolmabahçe Mosque, Ortaköy Mosque built. In addition to these, beautiful works of art such as the Dolmabahçe Palace, Küçüksu Summer Palace, Mecidiye Pavilion and the building of the Sultanahmet Darülfünun were also made during the reign of Abdülmecid.

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