Biography of Sultan Abdul Hamid I / Extra History of Sultan Abdulhamid I

 Biography of Sultan Abdul Hamid I. Welcome to Biography category. Today we will discuss life and achievements of  Sultan Abdul Hamid I. In this article i will share Extra History of Sultan Abdul Hamid I.

Biography of Sultan Abdul Hamid I

  • Title: Sultan
  • Date of birth: March 20, 1725
  • Date of death: April 7, 1789
  • City: Istanbul
  • Country: Turkey
  • Zodiac sign: Fish

Sultan Abdul Hamid I He was born on March 20, 1725 in Istanbul . His father is Sultan Ahmed III and his mother is Rabia Şermi Sultan. His mother gave him a strong education. He reviewed all the dates available at his time. He also engaged in calligraphy. He was known as a merciful, pious, kind and pure person. During his reign, he made many reforms and reconstruction movements. He has always been closely involved in state affairs. He used to inform his viziers about his ideas and opinions about every problem. He tried to appoint talented viziers. He always behaved kindly and moderately towards the people. Sultan Abdul Hamid I was just on the throne when he heard that he was asked for a culus tip. Sultan Abdul Hamid I, frowning and hardening, said:“There is no tip in the treasury, no more tipping! Announce our edict to our military sons!” Although the soldiers were a bit slurred, they dispersed without taking the matter any further.Sultan Abdul Hamid I embarked on political and military reforms.

 Sultan Abdul Hamid I opened schools in the European style. He tried to give a new face to the janissary corps and the navy. He had the Speed ​​Artillery Corps established, had the Janissaries counted, and had those who received unnecessary excess money identified. The Grand Vizier Halil Hamid Pasha, who carried out these activities, was complained to the sultan by those whose interests were corrupted. Despite all his positive efforts, Halil Hamid Pasha was executed by the order of Sultan Abdul Hamid I, who was misled in this regard.Despite all the failures, Sultan Abdul Hamid I was remembered among the Ottoman sultans with his good intentions and efforts. In the summer of 1782, he won the love and appreciation of the people as a result of his own firefighting work in the fire that broke out in Istanbul. Sultan Abdul Hamid I, who was regarded as the "parent" by the people due to his piety and goodness, passed away at the age of 64 in April 1789, after a reign of 15 years, 2 months and 17 days. He was buried in the mausoleum he had built in Bahçekapı.

Small Kaynarca Agreement :

Sultan Abdul Hamid I took the throne at a time when the Ottoman-Russian war was going badly. Realizing that the Russians could not be resisted, the Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca on 21 July 1774. According to this treaty, independence was given to Crimea. Russians; They would be able to trade in the Black Sea, maintain a navy, and protect the rights of the Orthodox communities in the Balkans. The Ottoman Empire would give war reparations to Russia, but Russia would return Wallachia, Moldavia, Bessarabia and the islands it occupied in the Mediterranean to the Ottoman Empire. However, in these regions, the Ottoman Empire would declare a general amnesty, give freedom of religion and sect to the people, would not collect taxes from the people, and migrate wherever they wanted. 

The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca is the most severe treaty signed by the Ottoman Empire since the day it was founded. For the first time, a province like the Crimea, whose population was entirely Turkish and Muslim, was lost. Thus, the Black Sea's feature of being a Turkish lake came to an end. For the first time, the Ottomans gave war reparations to a state. Russia was given the opportunity to benefit from the capitulations. Russian merchant ships had the right to pass freely through the straits. With this treaty, Russia also found the opportunity to interfere in the internal affairs of the Ottoman Empire.

Crimea :

As a result of the Küçük Kaynarca Treaty, a permanent peace could not be achieved between the Ottoman Empire and Russia. Because Russia wanted to completely annex Crimea to itself. A civil war broke out in Crimea between Selim Giray Khan the Third, who was appointed by the Ottoman government, and Şahin Giray, who was chosen by the Russians as Khan of the Crimea.Upon the emergence of the possibility of a new Ottoman-Russian war, Aynalı Kavak Minutes was signed. Some articles of the Küçük Kaynarca Treaty were changed.

 The Russians would withdraw their soldiers from the Crimea, and the Ottoman Empire would accept the khanate of Şahin Giray, which the Russians wanted. The people of Crimea did not want Şahin Giray, who is completely a Russian supporter. Using the uprising as an excuse, Şahin Giray called the Russian forces to the Crimea. The Crimean Khanate became a province of Russia on July 9, 1783, as a result of Russia's sudden invasion of Crimea.The Ottoman Empire could not accept the annexation of Crimea to Russia in 1783. Meanwhile, Russia and Austria were producing projects to share the Ottoman State. The rapprochement between these two states alarmed England. The Ottoman Empire declared war against Russia on 13 August 1787 with the provocations of England and Prussia. He sided with Russia in Austria.

Russia And Austria War :

The Ottoman army captured the Muhadiye Strait, which is in a strategic position in the province of Temeşvar. It was decided to continue the operation without allowing the Austrians to recover. Meanwhile, Austrian Emperor Joseph came to the Sebeş Strait with an army of 80,000 and 500 cannons. The Ottoman Army won a great victory in the Battle of Sebeş on September 21, 1788. The Ottomans, who had to fight both Austria and Russia on two separate fronts, divided the army into two. This situation left the Ottoman Empire in a difficult situation. The Russians, who attacked, besieged the Ozi castle and murdered 25,000 people vilely (December 17, 1788). Upon the arrival of this news in Istanbul, Sultan Abdul Hamid I fell ill with grief and had a stroke. However, he continued to deal with state affairs until he passed away on April 7, 1789.

Zoning Studies (Architecture) :

Sultan Abdul Hamid I had many architectural works built. The Sultan Abdulhamid Complex, which he named after himself, Istanbul Beylerbeyi Mosque, Emirgan Fountain, Hasköy Silahdar Yahya Efendi Fountain, Gülşehir Kurşunlu Mosque, Yozgat Ulu Mosque, Unkapanı Şebsafa Mosque and Karavezir Madrasa are the most important ones.

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