Biography of Sultan Abdulhamid II / Extra History of Sultan Abdulhamid II

 

Biography of Sultan Abdulhamid II. Welcome to Biography category. Today we will discuss life and achievements of Sultan Abdulhamid II. In this article i will share Extra History of Sultan Abdulhamid II.


Biography of Sultan Abdulhamid II


  • Title: Sultan
  • Date of birth: September 21, 1842
  • Date of death: February 10, 1918
  • City: Istanbul
  • Country: Turkey
  • Zodiac sign: Virgo


Sultan Abdulhamid II was born on September 21, 1842 in Istanbul. His father is Sultan Abdülmecid the First, and his mother is Tir-i Müjgan Kadın Efendi. His mother is Circassian. Since Sultan Abdulhamid II lost his mother at a very young age, he grew up orphaned and his stepmother, Piristu Kadın, brought him up. Sultan Abdulhamid II, who had a very weak constitution in his childhood, was often sick. During his father's sultanate, he received special attention because of this situation. He grew up in a very tolerant environment. In addition to his culture lessons, he took music lessons and learned to play the piano. Sultan Abdulhamid II, who lived a very free life during his bachelorhood, started to spend all his free time with his family and children after he got married.

Sultan Abdulhamid II is a great sultan who managed to keep the Ottoman Empire, which was about to collapse, standing for 33 years. Sultan Abdulhamid II, who was a religious person, did not neglect his prayers. Sultan Abdulhamid II, who was a benevolent and generous person, lived like an ordinary citizen.During the Greek campaign, when he was told that there was not enough money in the treasury, he covered the expenses from his personal wealth inherited from his ancestors and did not receive a penny from the state. He spent his spare time in the carpentry shop, making wonderful items, selling them and giving his money to the poor.It is an unprecedented event in the history of world politics that Sultan Abdulhamid II, who was an extremely compassionate person, forgave those who wanted to kill him.

 Sultan Abdulhamid II gave importance to culture and built many places to serve in education. Sultan Abdulhamid II, who established Universities, Fine Arts Academy, Trade and Agriculture Schools, also had primary and secondary schools, mute and blind schools, and girls' vocational schools built. He established high schools in the provinces, secondary schools in the districts, and brought primary schools to the villages. He built Şişli Etfal Hospital and Darülaceze in Istanbul with his own money. He had the delicious drinking water called Hamidiye brought to Istanbul through pipes.

 Sultan Abdulhamid II, who extended the highways to the interior of Anatolia, had railways laid as far as Baghdad and Medina. He built horse-drawn tram lines to big cities. The notables of the Committee of Union and Progress, using the successive revolts in the Balkans and the growing crisis in the country as an excuse, deposed Sultan Abdulaziz and replaced him with Sultan Murad the Fifth. After a short while, after it was understood that Sultan Murad was sick, Sultan Abdulhamid II was brought in. As a result of the relations with Europe, an intellectual class was formed in the Ottoman Empire. The Committee of Union and Progress worked as the spokesperson of these intellectuals and believed that there would be relief in the country with the coming of the Constitutional administration. Before Sultan Abdulhamid II ascended the throne, he promised to declare the Constitutional Monarchy.

 As soon as he became the sultan, he kept his promise and on December 23, 1876, the first constitution of the Ottomans, Kanun-i Esasi.announced the . The declared First Constitutional Monarchy did not last long. Mithat Pasha wanted to limit the powers of the sultans. Disturbed by this situation, Sultan Abdulhamid II dismissed Midhat Pasha, whom he held responsible for the murder of Sultan Abdulaziz, from the position of grand vizier and sent him into exile. Due to the Ottoman-Russian war and the conflicts between the Deputies in the Assembly, the assembly became inoperable. Sultan Abdulhamid II announced that he had suspended the assembly (1878).


1877-1878 Ottoman-Russian War (93 War) :

The Ottoman-Russian tension was overcome with the Paris Agreement, but Russia was not satisfied with this situation. Because the principle of neutrality of the Black Sea, which existed in this treaty, was contrary to the interests of Russia. In addition, Russia had accelerated the Pan-Slavism movements that it tried to spread among the nations of the Slavic race. Riots broke out in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and Bulgaria. Fearing a new war, the Europeans held a conference. While the conference was continuing, the Ottoman State declared the First Constitutional Monarchy.

 The Ottoman State did not accept the decisions taken at the Istanbul Conference. Because in the negotiations, they demanded autonomy for Bosnia, Herzegovina and Bulgaria, and the withdrawal of Ottoman forces from Serbia and Montenegro. Although the Europeans convened a new conference in London, the war could not be prevented. War, It started when the Russians crossed the Danube in the Balkans and attacked the Ottoman lands. Passing Arpaçay in the east, the Russians captured Kars and Ardahan. Gazi Ahmet Muhtar Pasha stopped the Russian army in Erzurum. In the West, Gazi Osman Pasha successfully resisted the Russian attacks in Pleven for a long time, but could not get the necessary help. The Russians passed Pleven and Capka. Thus, the Edirne road was opened to the Russians. When the Russian Army came to Yeşilköy, the Ottoman Empire demanded peace.


Distinction Of The Ottoman State :

After the Treaty of Berlin, the Ottoman Empire entered the process of disintegration. The Ottoman Empire was looking for its glorious times, with the nations living in the Balkans starting to gain their independence and then the agreements signed as a result of the war with Russia. Claiming the possibility of Russia's opening to the Mediterranean, the British invaded Cyprus. The Ottoman State temporarily transferred the island to England on the condition that the land ownership remains with them. After settling in Algeria, France set its sights on Tunisia. Seizing the opportunity it sought at the Berlin Conference, France invaded Tunisia. The protest of the Ottoman State did not yield any results. After the French occupied Tunisia, the British took action. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 increased Egypt's geopolitical position.

 This situation accelerated the British and French rivalry over Egypt. The Egyptian Khedive Ismail Pasha could not manage Egypt well, and the economic problems caused the people to attack the workplaces of European merchants. Using these developments as an excuse, England invaded Egypt (1882). After Greece gained independence, Greek Cretans wanted to join Greece. The Ottoman Empire did not accept this. The rebellion was suppressed. After Greece landed troops in Crete, the Ottoman Empire declared war on Greece. In the war in Thessaly region, the Ottoman Forces under the command of Gazi Ethem Pasha defeated the Greeks (1897). A treaty was signed with the intervention of European states. With this treaty, Crete was given autonomy. In 1908, Greece reoccupied the island. After the Balkan Wars, Crete was completely out of our hands.

 The administration of Bosnia-Herzegovina was temporarily given to Austria with the Treaty of Berlin. After Sultan Abdulhamid II declared the Second Constitutional Monarchy, Austria officially annexed this region as a result of the turmoil. The Ottoman Empire had to accept this on the condition that the New Pazar sanjak remain with us (1908).

 Bulgaria, which was divided into three regions with the Treaty of Berlin, became a Principality, and Eastern Rumelia and Macedonia remained in the Ottoman Empire on condition that reforms were made. In 1885, rebellions broke out in Eastern Rumelia. Bulgaria declared that it had attached Eastern Rumelia to itself. After the proclamation of the Second Constitutional Monarchy, Bulgaria gained its independence and a Bulgarian Kingdom was established (1908), which also included Eastern Rumelia.


Second Constitutional Constitution : 

The supporters of the Constitutionalism started to work under the name of Young Turks and they started to pressure Sultan Abdulhamid II to declare the Constitution again. The leaders of the Union and Progress Party, which was mostly organized in Macedonia, started to revolt with their followers. With the declaration of the Second Constitutional Monarchy; An environment of security and trust was established in the country, censorship was abolished, freedom was given to the press, an environment of freedom and trust was established, political parties began to form, the Kanun-i Esasi came into force and important changes were made on the constitution, and the Turkish people had the opportunity to participate in the administration for the second time alongside the sultan.


The Event Of 31th March :

After the re-declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy, conflicts and discussions started between various groups. Those who were against the constitutional monarchy united with the hunter battalions and started a great rebellion in Istanbul. The movement army from Thessaloniki suppressed this rebellion. After this event, which went down in our history as March 31st, the Party of Union and Progress became stronger and Sultan Abdulhamid II, who was held responsible for this event, was dethroned. Sultan Mehmed Reşad became the sultan instead of Sultan Abdulhamid II.


Zoning Studies (ARCHITECTURE) :

During the reign of Sultan Abdulhamid II, who was a gentle-spirited sultan who gave importance to subjects such as Culture, Art and Architecture, the activities of foreign architects especially stood out. Some of the architectural works done by local and foreign architects during the reign of Sultan Abdulhamid II were as follows; Istanbul Archeology Museum, Ancient Orient Museum, High Trade Center, Tarabya Italian Embassy, ​​Haydarpaşa Medical School, Düyun-ı Umumiye and Karaköy Ottoman Bank, Karaköy Palas office building, Maçka Palace, Ankara İş Bank, Istanbul Maçka Italian Embassy, ​​Haydarpaşa Train Station, German Fountain in Sultanahmet, Sirkeci Station, Kütahya Grand Mosque, Istanbul Yıldız Hamidiye Mosque, Cihangir Mosque.

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