Biography of Sultan Bayezid Yildirim / Extra History of Sultan Bayezid Yildirim

 Biography of Sultan Bayezid Yildirim. Welcome to Biography category. Today we will discuss life and achievements of  Sultan Bayezid Yildirim. In this article i will share Extra History of Sultan Bayezid Yildirim.



Biography of Sultan Bayezid Yildirim

  • Title: Sultan
  • Date of birth: 1360
  • Date of death: 8 March 1403
  • City: Edirne
  • Country: Turkey


Biography of Sultan Bayezid Yildirim :

Yildirim Bayezid was born in 1360 in Edirne . His father is Murad Hüdavendigar and his mother is Gülçiçek Hatun. Gülçiçek Hatun is Greek. Yıldırım Bayezid had a round face, white skin, ram nose, hazel eyes, brown hair, thick beard and broad shoulders. He was nicknamed 'Lightning' because of the courage he showed in the wars he entered.He spent his childhood in Bursa Palace with his siblings. He received a good education. He took lessons from the greatest scholars of the time. He was the governor of Kütahya sanjak in his youth. In accordance with the will of Sultan Murad Hüdavendigar, he was brought to the sultanate in 1389. He was 29 years old when he ascended the throne.At the head of Serbia was Stefan Lazaroevic, son of King Lazar, who died in the Kosovo war. In Edirne, where he came for the peace treaty, he gave his sister Maria to Bayezid. Thanks to this marriage, Ottoman-Serbian friendship was established. Sultan Bayezid Yildirim was defeated and captured in the Battle of Ankara with Timur. At the end of his 13-year reign, he passed away 7 months and 12 days after the start of his captivity.


Fight With Principles :

After the conquest of Bulgaria and Bosnia in 1389, Sultan Bayezid Yildirim, who was informed that the situation in Anatolia was mixed, signed open agreements with the Balkan states. Sultan Bayezid Yildirim took advantage of the death of Sultan Murad and started a struggle against the Anatolian Principalities, which joined forces against the Ottomans. Karamanoğulları both occupied Beyşehir and provoked Saruhan, Menteşe, Aydın and Germiyan Principalities. Sultan Bayezid Yildirim entered Anatolia with his Serbian forces and captured the lands of these rebellious principalities one by one. In addition, Çandaroğlu İsfendiyar Bey accepted Ottoman domination.


The First Istanbul :

 SIegeManuel, son of Serbian Emperor Yoannes, who was with Sultan Bayezid Yildirim in the Karaman Campaign, went to Istanbul without permission after coming to Bursa. Upon this incident, Sultan Bayezid Yildirim, thinking that this departure had a hidden purpose, canceled the previously planned expedition to Hungary and decided to besiege Istanbul.Istanbul was besieged by land and sea (1391). Since there were no large and powerful cannons, the siege was a blockade. The siege was lifted when the Hungarians entered Turkish territory. This siege is the first siege of Istanbul by the Ottomans.

The Hungarians, who did not stand idle, entered the Ottoman lands from the north. The Turkish Raiders sent against them defeated the Hungarian Army under the command of King Sigismund (1392). Upon returning from the Danube-Walking Campaign, Thessaloniki and its surroundings joined the Ottoman lands (1394). Sultan Bayezid Yildirim besieged Istanbul for the second time in 1395. However, when he heard that the Crusaders had taken action, this siege was lifted without success like the first one.


Battle Of Nigbolu :

The continuation of the activities of the Ottomans in Rumelia and the advance of the raiders to Bosnia and Albania alarmed the Crusaders. Hungarian King Sigismund, with the support of the Pope, became the head of the Crusader Army, which was formed with the participation of all European countries, especially the French, British and German forces. This army went into action in May of 1396.The purpose of this alliance was to liberate Istanbul, which was under siege for five years. The Crusaders besieged the Niğbolu fortress on the Danube. The castle commander, Doğan Bey, successfully defended the castle until the Ottoman Army under the command of Sultan Bayezid Yildirim arrived. In 1396, very bloody battles took place in front of the Niğbolu fortress. The Crusaders suffered a great defeat in this conflict, which went down in history as the Battle of Nicopolis. At the end of the war, the places taken by the Crusaders passed to the Ottoman Empire. The Bulgarian Kingdom was abolished and raids were made into Hungary. The Crusader world did not dare to march on the Turks for half a century. After this war, Sultan Bayezid Yildirim was given the title of "Sultan-i Klima-i Rum", that is, "Sultan of Anatolia", by the Abbasid Caliph.

After the Battle of Nicopolis, Istanbul was besieged for the third time. Anadoluhisarı, the construction of which had begun before, was completed during this siege. A strong naval force and lack of large cannons hindered conquest. For this reason, Sultan Bayezid Yildirim tried to develop Turkish Maritime. Yildirim thought that by keeping Istanbul under siege, the city would surrender. However, when Timur's danger emerged, a treaty was made with Byzantium and the siege was lifted. With this agreement, a mosque, an Islamic Court and a Turkish quarter were established in Istanbul Sirkeci. The annual tribute has been increased. In the same year, expeditions were organized to Greece and Peloponnese.In 1398, the land of Karaman and the Black Sea principalities were conquered. One year later, Dulgadiroğulları principality was abolished. Sultan Bayezid Yildirim also fought against the Genoese Colony in Galata, Istanbul.


Ankara War :

Timur started activities in order to re-establish the Genghis Empire. He took Iran and organized expeditions to India. Emirs of Azerbaijan and Baghdad took shelter in Sultan Bayezid Yildirim because of their fears. Although Timur wanted the Emirs back, Sultan Bayezid Yildirim refused, and due to this incident, Timur and Sultan Bayezid Yildirim were at odds. Timur, who entered Anatolia and plundered Sivas, continued to advance in Anatolia with his army of selected soldiers. The Ottoman Army also took action. The two armies met in Çubuk Plain in Ankara. In the Battle of Ankara, Black Tatars, who were one of Yıldırım's forces, passed to Timur's side, causing the Ottoman Army to disintegrate (July 20, 1402). Sultan Bayezid Yildirim was captured by Timur. This war caused the Ottoman Empire to pause for 50 years. Anatolian Turkish unity disintegrated and the principalities in Anatolia re-emerged and became stronger. Confusion began in the Ottoman Empire, which was left without a head. Four separate states were declared by the princes in four different regions of the Ottoman Empire. Bursa, Iznik and Izmit were looted and burned by Timur, Izmir was occupied. This period of power vacuum and throne struggles, which will last from 1402 to 1413, was called the Interregnum.


Zoning Studies (Architecture) :

Sultan Bayezid Yildirim, who was also busy with the development of the country, had mosques, complexes and madrasas built, especially in Bursa, which will keep Islamic architecture alive forever. A Mosque named after Timurtaş Pasha, Mudurnu Yıldırım Mosque, Bergama Ulu Mosque and Bursa Ulu Mosque were important architectural works built at that time. Sultan Bayezid Yildirim also had Anadoluhisarı built in 1396, which was a stage for the conquest of Istanbul. The Bursa Yıldırım Hospital and Bursa Yıldırım Health Center were the first works in the field of health in the Ottoman Empire. Sultan Bayezid Yildirim, who also had the Bursa Yildirim Madrasa built, made Bursa the center of scholars. Emir Buhari, who gained fame with the name "Emir Sultan", is one of the scholars who came to Bursa at that time.

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