Extra History of Ottoman Empire / The Greatest Empires

History of Ottoman Empire : this a most searched topic at Google now days. Every one wants to know about Ottoman Empire how this empire rise, their achievements and fall of Ottoman Empire. Today we will discuss all about this Greatest Empire. 

Extra History of Ottoman Empire / The Greatest Empires

Content Titles :

  • When and Where Was the Ottoman Empire Founded?
  • Ottoman Foundation Period
  • Golden Age of the Ottoman Empire
  • Ottoman Management Style
  • The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire

European historians often ignore the presence of the Ottoman Empire in their studies of 16th century European history, as they are more preoccupied with developments in Christianity, the rise of the Spanish, British, and Dutch empires, and the exploration of the New World .

However, the Ottoman Empire was a huge empire in which Europe had been in conflict for centuries due to lands and various political reasons. The face of the Ottoman Empire reflected in Europe; The fact that the sultan fell to the point of walking among the people in daily clothes, like sultans who arbitrarily murdered his brother or sultans who had dozens of wives, are generally negative examples .

In fact , the Ottoman Empire, which was at the forefront of history lessons , was quite successful, different branches of science such as astronomy, chemistry and medicine were  given great importance, it had cultural richness, liberal political institutions, and thus managed to carry its cultural heritage to the present day.

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When and Where Was the Ottoman Empire Founded?

After Istanbul was conquered in 1453, the administrative center of the state was moved here and the sultans continued to live here for more than four centuries. When the Ottoman state collapsed during the First World War (1301 - 1922), it had survived for more than six hundred years.

It spread to Europe, the Middle East and North Africa during the most powerful period of the Ottoman Empire ; Egypt, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, Hungary, Macedonia ruled Palestine, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon. It stretched from the south of Algeria to the Danube River. 

The most well-known of the sultans globally, Suleiman the Magnificent, ruled between 1520 and 1566. These years are known as the Golden Age of the Ottoman Empire. The state and the armies under its command were so strong that they began their attempts to conquer the lands of Iran, Austria and Russia.

After 1571, the course of history began to change for the Turks when the Ottoman navy was captured by the European powers under the leadership of the Pope. After this event, their influence in Europe waned, each campaign was unsuccessful, and the Empire entered a period of decline that would last for hundreds of years.

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Ottoman Foundation Period :

Osman I (Osman Gazi) is the Turkish ruler, the founder of the Ottoman Dynasty and the first sultan of the principality, and the Ottoman Empire, which will survive for centuries, is named after him.

It is thought that his father, Ertuğrul Gazi , migrated to Anatolia with his principality in the middle of the 13th century to escape the pressures of the Mongol Empire . His political and military power increased as other Muslims fleeing the Mongol invasions took refuge in Osman Gazi.

The successes of Osman Bey, who led one of the many tribes in Anatolia at that time, were so advanced that he moved towards today's Istanbul, formerly known as Constantinople, which was in the territory of the Byzantine Empire , and soon became the ruler of Anatolia and Eastern Rome.

Almost one hundred and fifty years later, the Empire founded by Osman Bey in 1453 would reach Constantinople, which he had been waiting for a long time, thanks to Fatih Sultan Mehmed Han. The name of the city was changed to Istanbul and it became the center of the Ottoman Empire.

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Golden Age of the Ottoman Empire :

With the capture of Istanbul, the Ottoman Empire continued to rise, getting stronger for more than a century. The armies under the command of Bayezid I, Selim I and Suleiman the Magnificent conquered Syria, the Arabian Peninsula, Palestine and Egypt. In this period, which is called the period of Ottoman rise, the Empire reached its widest limits.

During this period, the Turkish Empire continued to grow. But after Kanuni, things started to change a little while Selim II was on the throne. The people were revolting and the Ottomans were leaving in defeat from their wars with the European armies. And so the power of the Empire began to weaken.

Trade :

During the Golden Age of the Ottoman Empire, the sultans effectively used the very important position of Istanbul to strengthen their trading and trade.

Istanbul has always had a strategic position on trade routes between east and west, as it connects Europe, Africa and Asia. The Ottomans were trading with China in the Far East and with Italy in Europe. Of course, it also benefited from an influx of expensive goods, such as silk, dyes, and spices. For example, when the Ottomans conquered Yemen, local coffee was brought under Turkish control, making it an incredibly prosperous city when sold in the Egyptian capital, Cairo .

Culture :

The Kanuni period was also the most productive period for the Ottomans in terms of art. There have been incredible developments in branches of art such as Islamic calligraphy, poetry, painting, music and ceramics. Mathematics, chemistry and philosophy courses were given in education centers . Many of the surgical instruments we use today were invented by Muslim scientists of various nationalities during the Ottoman period.

During the time of Kanuni, European artists such as Titian and Bellini said that after spending time in Istanbul, Mimar Sinan changed the face of the Middle East with his brilliant mind and magnificent designs.

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Religion :

One of the reasons for the hostility and distrust between early modern Europe and the Ottomans was religion; While the Turks were Muslims, Europe was deeply Christian.

Although the Ottoman Empire is now known as a very religious liberal regime, there were many horror stories circulating in Europe about the role of Islam at the time. Many literary works were being propagated, such as Shakespeare's Othello, which was thought to cast doubt on Islam.

As the title of sultan included responsibilities as the protector of Islam, Kanuni was both a religious and a political leader. He established many training centers for religion and literacy education. Unlike most of Christian Europe, Jews occupied an important place in the Ottoman Empire and were encouraged to come to Istanbul regularly.

Ottoman Management Style :

In order to understand how the Ottoman Empire survived for so long and ruled with a single dynasty for almost seven centuries, it is necessary to look at government and administrative techniques.

The Ottoman state is known for its strong centralization and stability. In the Ottoman Empire, two sultans were never allowed to share the throne, so there were fights for the throne between the brothers.

One of the well-known legends about the Ottoman Empire was that the sultan wore a disguise and wandered around the streets of the city to supervise the workers and see the condition of the people . There were always knowledgeable statesmen around the Sultan and he consulted them on all kinds of issues. Still, of course, the sultan had the last word.

Besides the centralized power of the absolute monarchy, the Ottomans retained power with an incredibly powerful army and were able to expand by conquering new lands. Thanks to the skill and knowledge of the commanders on land and at sea, the Ottoman armies instilled fear in their enemies.

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The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire :

Like every great empire, the Ottoman Empire began to lose its power after a while. But the interesting thing is that this process took centuries.

Battle of Lepanto :

In this naval battle between the Ottoman Empire and the Crusader navies in 1571, the Ottoman navy was severely damaged and this battle is known as the biggest naval defeat in the rise of the Ottoman Empire. After this war in the reign of Selim II, the world realized that the Ottoman navy was not invincible.

Along with forty thousand soldiers, many important naval officers were lost in this war and nearly two hundred ships were destroyed. This war was the biggest indicator of the weakening of the Turks' dominance over the Mediterranean .

Siege of Vienna II :

After this war, which historians think started a period of Ottoman decline, the 17th century passed with military defeats and territorial losses for the Ottomans . Of these, the most devastating defeat was probably the unsuccessful Siege of Vienna. 

This was actually the second Ottoman armies' siege of Vienna (the first in 1529), and it permanently halted Ottoman attempts to conquer more territory in Europe. As a result of this war, it is accepted that the Ottoman Empire entered a period of decline. If you want to learn more in detail, you can take special 9th ​​grade history lessons in addition to school lessons .

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Extra History of Ottoman Empire / The Greatest Empires

Other Factors Causing the Fall of the Ottoman Empire :

  • Military defeats aside, there were other reasons for the decline of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Thanks to the dominance that Europe established over the New World, it no longer needed the trade routes under the control of the Ottoman Empire, so its relations with the Ottoman Empire were weakened.
  • The Ottoman free trade policy meant that no resources were actually produced within the Empire. The general strategy of the empire can be described as 'short-termism' ; This means that instead of making investments that will work in the long run, the Ottoman Empire would use whatever wealth was available in the conquered area and continue on the road.
  • Popular uprisings and internal revolts in all regions under the rule of the empire further weakened the central political authority. This situation continued in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries as well.
  • Although the empire resisted for a long time, it said goodbye to the pages of history after the First World War .
  • With the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, many countries, including the British and French governments, came together and made an agreement in which they divided the Ottoman lands among themselves. However, the Turkish people, who started the National Struggle by putting forth their best, succeeded in expelling the enemy from the country.

Now you have a lot of knowledge about the history of the Ottoman Empire. If you want to learn about the most powerful empires in the world, or especially about the British Empire , the Russian Empire , the Qing Empire , be sure to check out our related articles!

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