Biography of Sultan Abdul Aziz / Extra History of Sultan Abdul Aziz

 Biography of Sultan Abdul Aziz. Welcome to Biography category. Today we will discuss life and achievements of Sultan Abdul Aziz. In this article i will share Extra History of Sultan Abdul Aziz.


Biography of Sultan Abdul Aziz


  • Title: Sultan 
  • Date of birth: February 8, 1830
  • Date of death: June 4, 1876
  • City: Istanbul
  • Country: Turkey
  • Zodiac sign: Aquarius


Sultan Abdul Aziz was born on February 8, 1830 in Istanbul. His father is Sultan Mahmud II and his mother is Pertevniyal Valide Sultan. He had hazel eyes, a white-brown complexion, a stern look, and a ball of beard. He was 31 years old when he ascended to the throne on 25 June 1861 after the death of his elder brother, Sultan Abdülmecid I. Although he was known as a wasteful sultan, he dressed very simply and walked around the palace in a slipper and a robe.He was nine years old when his father died. However, his older brother, Sultan Abdülmecid the First , paid due attention to his education. He led a comfortable and fearless life during his princedom.He spoke very good French. He was also interested in poetry and music. He has his own compositions. Sultan Abdul Aziz the First, who also had a great ability to paint, personally drew the plans of the ships he would order for the Ottoman navy. He loved to shoot arrows, horseback riding, hunting and especially wrestling. He was strong, strong and of a wrestler. He would wrestle with the best wrestlers and bring their backs to the ground.


Political Developments :

When Sultan Abdul Aziz came to the throne, there was a foreign debt problem in the Ottoman Empire. The treasury was emptied and the old glorious times of the Ottoman Empire were left behind. The nations living in the Ottoman Empire started to revolt as a result of the libertarian and nationalist feelings brought by the French Revolution and the provocations of the European states.


Montenegro Uprising :

With the encouragement of Russia and Austria in the Balkans, an uprising began in Montenegro. However, the troops under the command of Serdar-ı Ekrem Ömer Pasha suppressed the uprising. With the Istanbul Protocol signed on September 8, 1862, as a result of the pressures of Russia and France, the inner parts of the Belgrade fortress would be left to the Ottomans, and the outer areas would be left to the Serbs.


Egypt Travel :

Sultan Abdul Aziz the First had decided to go on a trip to Egypt. On April 3, 1863, he left Istanbul with the ferry Feyz-i Jihad. His nephews, Şehzade Murat, Şehzade Abdülhamid and Şehzade Mehmed Reşad were also with him. The people in Egypt showed crazy love to the sultan. No Osmanoğlu had set foot in Egypt since Yavuz Sultan Selim. Sultan Abdul Aziz, who gave importance to Egypt, made new regulations regarding Egypt in the following years. Egyptian Governors began to be called "Khedive" as of June 2, 1866.


The Romanian Problem :

According to the article specified in the signed Paris Agreement, Wallachia and Moldavia Principalities were independent in their internal affairs. The joint Assembly of Wallachia and Moldavia, convened in Bucharest in 1862, ensured the unity of Romania. After the Romanian prince failed to get a vote of no confidence, the events escalated and the turmoil in Romania did not end. In 1866, the union of Romania and the principality of Prince Charles of Romania were admitted.


Cretes Problem :

The Cretan problem, which started at the end of the 18th century, continued throughout the 19th century, and the Greeks living in Crete revolted at every opportunity. During the reign of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Abdul Aziz, a rebellion broke out on the island. The Ottoman State made attempts to solve the problem both militarily and administratively. However, no success was achieved against the Greeks of Crete, who had no other thought than annexation (Enosis) to Greece (September 2, 1866).Grand Vizier Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha, who was sent to Crete, issued an edict on 6 October 1867 to determine the new status of the island. With this edict, a new form of administration was brought to Crete. The civil administration was given to the new governor appointed by the sultan, the military administration was given to the commander, and the appointed governor would have two assistants, one Muslim and the other Christian. Except for customs duty, the island would be exempt from other taxes and would have two official languages. The mixed assembly would plan agriculture, public works, trade, and industry.


Self-Holding Belgrade :

After the Paris Agreement, the Serbs displayed hostile behavior, and there were clashes between Muslims and Serbs. According to the agreement reached in 1862, the Belgrade fortress remained with the Ottomans, while the Serbs dominated the Sokod and Owitza fortresses near Belgrade. The Serbs also wanted Belgrade, relying on the European states. The Ottoman Empire, which did not want to enter a new war, handed over Belgrade, which was taken by Suleiman the Magnificent, to Serbia on April 10, 1867.


Sultan Abdul Aziz's Travel To Europe :

Sultan Abdul Aziz was the first sultan to go out of the country and visit European Capitals. Because until that date, it had never been seen for an Ottoman ruler to visit a foreign country, either formally or unofficially.This European trip, which lasted for one month and sixteen days, from the departure of Sultan Abdul Aziz from Istanbul on June 21, 1867 to his return to Istanbul on August 7, 1867, especially to France, which acted in alliance with Russia, to explain Turkish politics in the Balkans and to create a new one. It was designed to prevent a Russian war.


Bosnia And Herzegovina And Bulgarian :

Revolt In 1875, an uprising broke out in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The European states that intervened in the uprising in this region demanded some reforms. The prepared reform package was shelved before being implemented because the uprising started in Bulgaria. Bulgaria's aim was to become a fully independent state. The problem of Bulgaria remained suspended, as the Europeans, who supported the uprising Bulgarian gangs, could not find a suitable point for their own interests.


Abdul Aziz's Remedies :

During the reign of Sultan Abdul Aziz, the innovation movements that started during the reign of Abdülmecid continued. A new provincial organization was initiated. The institution of kadi was put under tighter control and Council of State was established on April 1, 1868, and Divan-ı Muhasebat was established in 1870 (Council of State and Court of Accounts). In addition, various arrangements were made in the fields of education, transportation and banking.During the reign of Sultan Abdul Aziz, efforts were made to modernize the navy. Towards 1875, there were 21 battleships and 173 auxiliary ships carrying 816 cannons in the Turkish navy. There were 50,000 officers, 700 officers, 208 high-ranking officers, 11 Rear Admirals, 6 Vice Admirals and three Admirals in the Turkish Navy. With this appearance, it became the third largest navy in the world after England and France.

Sultan Abdul Aziz remained on the throne for 14 years, 11 months and five days. During this period, although he initially favored the idea of ​​constitutionalism, he would later change and use force against those who defended this idea. Although Şinasi, who were the intellectuals of the period, established warm relations with Namık Kemal and Ziya Pasha in the early periods of his sultanate, he became tough enough to exile Namık Kemal to Cyprus after the play Vatan Yahut Silistra. In this atmosphere of freedom created by those who wanted the constitutional government to come in the country, public opinion was formed about the dethronement of Sultan Abdul Aziz. As a result of the provocations of Mithat Pasha, university students organized a protest march on May 10, 1876. After a while, on Tuesday, May 30, 1876, the palace was raided by the soldiers under the command of Hüseyin Avni Pasha and Sultan Abdul Aziz was dethroned without blood.Although it is said that Sultan Abdul Aziz committed suicide by cutting his wrists with scissors to trim his beard in Feriye Palace, where he lived in prison, four days after he was dethroned, there is also evidence that he might have been killed (4 June 1876).


Zoning Studies (ARCHITECTURE) :

Like almost all Ottoman sultans, Sultan Abdul Aziz supported studies on architecture. Harbiye building, Aksaray Valide Mosque, Sadabad Mosque, Aziziye Mosque on the ridges of Maçka, Aziziye Mosque, Beylerbeyi Palace and Çırağan Palace, which he had built before his trip to Egypt, were built during his reign.

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