Biography of Orhan Gazi / Extra History of Orhan Gazi

Biography of Orhan Gazi. Welcome to Biography category. Today we will discuss life and achievements of  Orhan Gazi. In this article i will share Extra History of Orhan Gazi.

Biography of Orhan Gazi

  •  Date of birth: 1281
  • Date of death: March 1362
  • Country: Turkey

Detailed Biography of Orhan Gazi :

Orhan Gazi was born in 1281. His father was Osman Gazi and his mother was Mal Hatun, the daughter of Ömer Bey, one of the notables of the Kayı tribe. Orhan Gazi had a blond beard, was tall, and had blue eyes. He was a gentle, compassionate gentleman who loved the poor, respected the ulema, was pious, just, was calculating and never rushed, and was endeared to the people. He often mingled with the people, and was very fond of visiting them.Orhan Gazi became the head of the principality after the death of his father Osman Gazi in 1326. Orhan Gazi married Theodora, the daughter of Byzantine Emperor John VI Kantakouzinos, in 1346. In addition, while Holofira, daughter of Yarhisar Tekfur, was married to the Tekfur of Bilecik, the wedding was held and Holofira was taken prisoner and married to Orhan Gazi. After she became a Muslim, her name was changed to Nilüfer Hatun; From this marriage, Murad Hüdavendigar, who would later become the third ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born.

Military Achievements :

The most important political and military achievement of Orhan Gazi, who was always at the head of his army in wars, was undoubtedly the capture of Bursa on 6 April 1326. Orhan Gazi, who appointed Alaüddin Ali Bey as a vizier, seized the Orhaneli district, came in front of Bursa and besieged the city. The city was taken without a serious conflict. The center of the state was transferred from Bilecik to Bursa.Pioneering commanders such as Akçakoca, Karamürsel and Abdurrahman Gazi captured the castles of Kandıra, Aydos and Semendire. Thus, the Ottoman borders were extended towards the Black Sea and the Bosphorus. Orhan Gazi, whose life has been full of wars and victories since the age of 15, made a military arrangement and established an army in 1328, which he named "Yaya".The fact that the Ottomans took the castles on the Kocaeli peninsula and reached the Bosphorus, alarmed the Byzantine Empire. Emperor III. Andronikos prepared an army to both retake the conquered castles and liberate the besieged Nicaea. Orhan Gazi left some force in Iznik and took action against the Byzantines.

 The two armies met in Palekonon (Maltepe), the Byzantine army was defeated in the Palekonon War (1329).After this important victory, Orhan Gazi continued the siege of Iznik. Iznik commander, who despaired of the Byzantine Empire, declared that he would surrender under certain conditions. Orhan Gazi promised to abide by the conditions set forth and to treat the people well. Iznik, one of the most important cities of Christianity, thus came under Turkish rule (1330). Orhan Gazi continued the conquests; He annexed Taraklı, Göynük and Mudurnu in 1331, and Gemlik in 1333. Orhan Gazi conquered Izmit and its surroundings (Koyunhisar, Hereke, Yalova, Armutlu) which was an important trade center in 1337 and gave the administration of this place to his son Süleyman Pasha.When the Kirmasti, Mihaliç and Ulubat castles belonging to the Greeks near Balıkesir were conquered in 1342, it became a border neighbor with the Karesioğulları Principality. Orhan Gazi took advantage of the throne struggles in the Karesioğulları principality and seized the lands of this principality (1345). Hacı İlbey and Evrenos Gazi, one of the Karesi Beys, entered the Ottoman service and the navy of the Principality joined the Ottoman Empire. Marmara Islands, Üsküdar and Kadıköy were conquered (1352). In 1354, Gerede Principality was captured and Ankara was conquered for the first time.

Administrative Regulations :

Orhan Gazi transferred the state lands he had taken from his father Osman Gazi as 16000 square kilometers to his son Murad Hüdavendigar as 95000 square kilometers. Orhan Gazi thought that the state should have an administrative system, for this purpose he gave the job of organization to Alaeddin Pasha and Çandarlı Kara Halil Pasha, the brother-in-law of Sheikh Edebali. Orhan Gazi emphasized three important points in the state organization; These were money, army and clothes. He appointed judges for judicial and administrative affairs, and subasis for military affairs in the places he conquered. The first Ottoman coin was issued by Orhan Gazi in 1326.

Architectural Studies :

Orhan Gazi was a sultan who also gave importance to zoning and city planning. After the conquest of Iznik, the famous Hagia Sophia Church in Iznik was converted into a mosque in 1331. In addition, in 1333, the Hacı Özbek Mosque, the first mosque in Ottoman history, was built in Iznik. Other works commissioned by Orhan Gazi are as follows; Iznik Haci Hamza Mosque and Cupola, Iznik Green Mosque, Bilecik Orhan Mosque, Bilecik Orhan Gazi Imaret, Gebze Orhan Mosque, Bursa Orhan Mosque, Iznik Nilüfer Hatun Imaret. Orhan Gazi, who attached great importance to science and education, had the Bursa Madrasa built.

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