Extra History Of Mongol Empire / The Greatest Empires

History of Mongol Empire : this a most searched topic at Google now days. Every one wants to know about Mongol Empire, how this empire rise, their achievements and fall of Mongol Empire. Today we will discuss all about this Greatest Empire. 

Extra History Of Mongol Empire

Content Titles :

  • Where and When Was the Mongol Empire Founded?
  • Founder of the Mongol Empire
  • Mongol State and Power
  • Mongol Empire Achievements
  •  Fall of the Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire owes its fame entirely to Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan is known for killing more than a million people in an hour, and he has so many children that it is said that there are now sixteen million male descendants in the world .

Of course, such a thing is physically impossible, but for the Mongols, this figure is much more than a wild and fierce leader. Their empire was so powerful that when it reached its greatest extent, its territory stretched from Beijing on the Pacific coast in the east to the Danube and Persian Gulf in the west. Mongolians, which are among the 9th grade history lesson subjects, have a very interesting history.

In this article, you will find many important information about the Mongol Empire founded by Genghis Khan. If you're researching the greatest empires of all time or are interested in nomadic societies and wars, read on!

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Where and When Was the Mongol Empire Founded?

Let us now return to the famous Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire, which we briefly mentioned at the beginning. It is estimated that Genghis Khan was born around 1162 in Dülün-Boldak , a settlement close to Mongolia's current capital,  Ulanbaatar .

Genghis Khan ruled the Mongol Empire, which had the largest lands in the history of the world, whose land area reached 33,000,000 square kilometers in its peak years . The Mongol Empire reached its greatest extent during the reign of Genghis Khan. The Mongols were originally a nomadic society, meaning they had no permanent place to stay, but as the Empire expanded they began to build urban centers in places such as Beijing, Karakorum, Avarga, and in Hanbalik.

Genghis Khan proclaimed himself the Empire in 1206. After fifty years of incredible success, divisions began to emerge in the administration. Towards the end of the thirteenth century, the Empire was gradually divided into four parts: the Golden Horde State, the Ilkhanate State, the Chagatai Khanate, and the Yuan Dynasty . By 1294, the borders of these four states were completely clear.

These states would also go to war with each other, and each would decline over time as they were politically independent . The Yuan Dynasty bid farewell to the pages of history in 1368, and the Ikhans in 1375. As the Chagatai Khanate collapsed in 1687, the Golden Horde State split into two parts in what we now call Crimea and Kazakhstan, which in turn fell into power in 1783 and 1874, respectively.

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Founder of the Mongol Empire:

Before Genghis Khan took the name 'Han' and 'Emperor' he was known as Timuçin and was a member of the family of Khans who ruled a region, thought to be the predecessor of the Mongol Empire.

After long struggles between the different tribes of the Mongolian plains, Genghis united them by conquest and alliance . Among them were the Merkits, Naymans, Keraites, Tatars, and Uyghurs, along with several Turkish tribes, the most important of which were several Turkish tribes.

In 1206, Genghis named himself the Great Mongol Khan , and this ruler set out to conquer the world. There was no such desire and initiative in the Mongols before, but it is said that the form of domination called one-man rule today comes from the Chinese culture.

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Mongol State and Power :

Genghis Khan's empire was not just about fighting on horseback and shedding blood, as it was thought. On the contrary, there was a need for a government system that could maintain its power over such a large area.

Military Victories:

At the command of Genghis, armies were sent in different directions to fight and expand the territory of the empire, and the brutal methods they used in capturing these places caused Genghis Khan and the Mongol armies to go down in history as 'bloodthirsty' .

By 1220 the Mongols had conquered from central Asia to Siberia, Persia and Afghanistan . Some of the Mongol armies advanced in the Middle East and annexed a part of Turkey, Syria and Iraq. Thus, in 1258 , he captured Baghdad , which would become the center of Islam . In Europe it progressed as far as Poland, Croatia, Czech and Austria .

All these wars caused the people living in the occupied areas to migrate mostly. The family of Osman I , the founder of the Ottoman Empire , was among the communities that migrated from the invasion of the Mongols.

Chinese :

One of the main achievements of the Mongols was their conquest of most of northern China in the space of sixty years. In 1279, Kublai Khan (the fifth great Khan) established the Yuan Dynasty in Hanbalik, and for the first time in history, China came under foreign domination.

Men fit to fight in the captured regions of China were recruited to participate in the Mongol invasions.

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Political Power :

The Mongolian political system was based on the leadership of a single Khan. Due to the diverse ethnic cultures of so many captured territories , a policy of loyalty was implemented to reduce the potential for revolt . The deserving were given promotion, awards, and power, and the aristocracies of the conquered territories were abolished.

Today, the Mongols are known for one more feature besides being a strong warrior. They respected freedom of belief wherever they  conquered and allowed everyone, from Buddhists to Muslims to Jews, to practice their own faith. Leaders of different religious and ethnic groups took part in administrative and legal councils.

As the Mongol Empire expanded, the semi-religious Genghis Khan Laws were applied in the lands captured in order to establish a certain order . These laws defined behavior and many crimes were punishable by death. One of the most extreme examples is; that if a soldier did not pick up what the person in front of him dropped, he could be killed!

Mongol Empire Achievements :

Trade :

The Mongols fortified and fortified the famous Silk Road connecting east to west, stretching from Beijing and Shanghai to Anatolia . Tradesmen and merchants who wanted to use this route were exempted from tax, and even the famous Italian merchant Marco Polo was among the beneficiaries of this system. It is said that Polo was heavily influenced by the paper money system used in the Mongol Empire.

The term 'Mongolian Peace' is used to describe a time of stability as a result of the conquests of the Mongol Empire, which positively affected the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast lands . As the entire Silk Road was under Mongol control, trade flourished and technological advances, resources and culture spread from China to England.

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Culture, Science and Technology :

Although the Mongol Empire is not known for its artistic masterpieces, many Mongol rulers are thought to be fond of the arts. For example, under Genghis Khan, architects, jewelers and stone masters were encouraged to come to Karakorum, the capital at that time, and were given the opportunity to develop their art there.

In various regions of the Mongol Empire, such as Afghanistan, the Yuan Dynasty, and the Golden Horde Empire, artists were required to continue to practice their art in order to maintain the system and peace. It is also mentioned in the sources that Genghis Khan himself cared about collecting information about different cultures under his rule .

Another technology developed by the Mongols that has proven quite necessary when fighting for large tracts of land is the stirrup that allows the Mongolian cavalry to stand on their horses !

Fall of the Mongol Empire :

After the death of the fourth Han Möngke in 1259, without leaving any heir, disputes and strife arose over who should head the empire, and civil war finally broke out . After the Toluid Civil War, which lasted until 1264, and a series of other wars, the empire was divided into four separate parts.

Each of these states weakened one by one, and over the years, different powers took advantage of this weakness and seized their territory. The Yuan Dynasty was occupied by the Ming Dynasty, the predecessor of the Qing Empire. The Golden Chamber State was captured by the Russian Empire. The British Empire also defeated the Chagatai State.

It is thought that the change in the political system that came with their transition from the nomadic lifestyle to the settled life brought the end of the newly established Mongolian dynasties. Among the four states, Atın Orda, which adopted the nomadic lifestyle the most, managed to survive the longest for this reason.

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Extra History Of Mongol Empire / The Greatest Empires

Plague :

Plague , also called the Black Death , is thought to have spread rapidly through the Silk Road, decimating the Mongolian population. For example, the Ilkhanate Empire began to disintegrate rapidly after Ebu Said Han and his sons were caught in the plague and died.

You have learned how the Mongol Empire collapsed and how it was founded. If you want to learn more about The Greatest Empires in the world or especially the Roman Empire, check out our articles!

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