Biography of Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin / Extra History of Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin

 Biography of Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin. Welcome to Biography category. Today we will discuss life and achievements of Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin. In this article i will share Extra History of Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin.

Biography of Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin

  • Title: Sultan
  • Date of birth: February 2, 1861
  • Date of death: May 15, 1926
  • City: Istanbul
  • Country: Turkey
  • Zodiac sign: Aquarius

Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin is the thirty-sixth and last Ottoman sultan. His father is Sultan Abdülmecid and his mother is Gülistu Kadın Efendi. He was born on February 2, 1861 in Istanbul. His father, Sultan Abdülmecid, died the year Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin was born, and his mother, Gülistu Kadın Efendi, died when he was very young. Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin, who was both orphaned and orphaned at the age of a child, was raised by Şayeste Kadın, one of the women of his father, Sultan Abdülmecid. During the reign of Sultan Abdulaziz, he grew up free as he was still a child. Even when he was not a sultan, his elder brother, Sultan Abdulhamid II, took a close interest in his education and training. Sultan Abdulhamid II did not change this attitude during his reign, he always valued and protected him. Therefore, he lived a comfortable life during his elder brother's reign.

Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin read a lot and understood what he was reading. Especially the works of fiqh attracted his attention. His script and spelling were correct. He was an intelligent person and had no difficulty in conveying his ideas on paper. Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin, who was a very kind person, impressed both his friends and foreigners with his kindness during his Vienna trip. He spoke less, liked to listen more, and paid close attention while listening to someone.When Sultan Mehmed Reşad became the sultan, Yusuf Izzeddin, son of Sultan Abdulaziz, who was older than Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin in terms of age, was the heir. Upon the death of Yusuf Izzeddin, Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin was appointed as the heir. During his years as heir, the First World War broke out. During the war, he made an official trip to Germany as the heir apparent of the Ottoman Empire. He was accompanied by Mustafa Kemal on this trip. Upon the death of Sultan Mehmed Reşad, he became the sultan with the title of Sultan Mehmed the Sixth Vahdeddin. Reign: 04 July 1918 – 01 November 1922.

Armistice of Mudros :

Armistice The armed conflict ended with the Armistice of Mudros signed on 30 October 1918 between the Ottoman Delegation headed by the Minister of the Navy Hüseyin Rauf Orbay and the Allied Powers Committee headed by British Admiral Calthorp, in the Mudros Port of the island of Lemnos. This treaty, which ended World War I, actually had very harsh conditions. The Armistice of Mudros actually foresees the collapse of the Ottoman Empire; He was giving the Entente Powers the right to occupy any part of the Ottoman State due to a situation that would threaten their security. Mustafa Kemal said the following about this truce; The Ottoman Government agreed to surrender itself to the enemy unconditionally with this armistice. He not only agreed, but also promised to help the enemies to invade their homeland. If this Armistice is implemented as it is, there is no doubt that the country will be subjected to occupation and invasion from beginning to end.With the Armistice of Mudros, the Allied Powers attempted to partition Turkish lands without waiting for the signing of the peace treaty. In accordance with Article 7 of the Armistice Agreement, it allowed the Allied Powers to occupy an entire country.The main provisions of the Armistice of Mudros are as follows:

1- The opening of the Dardanelles and Istanbul Straits, the free passage to the Black Sea, and the occupation of the Dardanelles and Black Sea fortifications by the Entente Powers will be ensured.

2- The locations of all torpedo fields and torpedo and hive positions in Ottoman waters will be shown and assistance will be provided to scan and remove them.

3- Information will be given about torpedoes in the Black Sea.

4- All the prisoners of the Allied Powers and the Armenian prisoners will surrender unconditionally in Istanbul.

5- Except for the protection of the borders and the maintenance of internal security, the Ottoman army will be demobilized immediately.

6- Ottoman warships will surrender and be detained at the Ottoman ports to be shown.

7- The Allied Powers shall have the right to occupy any strategic place in the event of a situation threatening their security.

8- Allied Powers will benefit from the Ottoman railways and Ottoman merchant ships will be at their service.

9- The Allied Powers will make use of the vehicles in the Ottoman shipyards and ports.

10-The Taurus Tunnels will be occupied by the Allies.

11- The Ottoman forces in Iran and the Caucasus will withdraw from the places they occupied.

12- Control of radio, telegraph and cables, except government communications, will pass to the Allied Powers.

13- The destruction of military, commercial and marine materials and materials will be prevented.

14- Allied Powers will procure coal, diesel and oil materials from Turkey (None of these materials will be exported).

15- All railways will be controlled by the police of the Allied Powers.

16- The forces in Hejaz, Asir, Yemen, Syria and Iraq will be surrendered to the commanders of the closest Allied Powers.

17- Ottoman officers in Tripoli and Benghazi will surrender to the nearest Italian garrison.

18- The ports under Ottoman occupation in Tripoli and Benghazi will be surrendered to the Italians.

19- Military and civilian German and Austrian nationals will leave the Ottoman lands within a month.

20- Any order to be given regarding the delivery of military equipment, the demobilization of the Ottoman Army and the delivery of transport vehicles to the Entente Powers will be carried out immediately.

21- A member on behalf of the Allied Powers will provide the needs of these states, which will work under the supervision of the subsistence, and will be given all the information he wants.

22- Ottoman prisoners of war will remain with the Allied Powers.

23- The Ottoman Government will cut off all relations with the central states.

24- If there is a conflict in the places called six provinces, the Allied Powers will have the right to occupy any part of the provinces.

25- The war between the Allies and the Ottoman Empire will end at noon on the 31st of October 1918, local time.

Agreement Of Sevres :

The Treaty of Sèvres, the outlines of which was decided at the San Remo Canferansi on April 24, 1920, was given to the Ottoman Government for review on May 11, 1920. In order to facilitate the acceptance of the Treaty and to implement the provisions of Sevres, with the encouragement and support of the Entente Powers, the Greek army attacked in Anatolia and Thrace on 23 June 1920. The main purpose of this attack was to ensure the implementation of Sevres with the successive occupation of Bursa, Balıkesir, Uşak and Nazilli, and not to allow any change in the articles of the Treaty.Convening under the presidency of Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin, the Council of Saltanat decided on the ratification of the Treaty on July 22, 1920, considering "a weak existence is worth preferring to perish". Reşat Halis Bey, who was appointed by Damad Ferit Pasha after Tevfik Pasha did not sign this treaty, which divided Turkish lands and was incompatible with national honor and dignity, signed the Treaty of Sevres on 10 August 1920.

 According to the Treaty of Sèvres, the Ottoman Empire was falling apart and the Turkish Nation was deprived of its right to legislate.Our Rumelian border was designated as the Istanbul province, more or less. Western Anatolia (İzmir and its surroundings) was given to the Greeks. The southern border was passing through Mardin, Urfa, Gaziantep, Amanos mountains and north of Osmaniye, leaving the south of this border to France. In the east, an Armenia, including Bayazit, Van, Muş, Bitlis and Erzincan, and a Kurdistan between Iraq and Syria would be established. Apart from this, the lands left to Turkey are divided into population zones; The Italians were establishing zones of influence in Antalya and Konya, the French in Adana, Sivas and Malatya, and the British in the northern part of Iraq. On the other hand, the government and the sultan would sit in Istanbul, but Istanbul would be an international city, and there would be a commission in the Straits with its army, navy, budget and organized organizations. The region left to the Turks, right of dominance was most severely limited, Ankara and Kastamonu provinces and their surroundings. According to Sevr, the minorities in the country had more rights than the Turks, and were in a privileged position by not paying taxes and not doing military service. Those who came out of Turkish nationality were freed from many obligations, and no one was allowed to become Turkish again.

 The military force of the state will be limited in all respects and the maximum amount will be 50,700 people; There would be no tanks, heavy artillery or aircraft. Military service would also be voluntary, the navy would consist of 7 gunboats and 6 torpedoes, and there would be no submarines in the navy. On the other hand, financial and economic provisions were limiting and burdensome in a way that disregarded the powers of the Ottoman Government and the Assembly, and made the Ottoman Empire a joint colony of the Entente States. The Financial Commission, which was composed of representatives of the British, French and Italian states, regulated the income and expenditures of the Ottoman State and bound the powers of the state in a way that could not be reconciled with the title of statehood. The signing of the Treaty of Sèvres by the Ottoman Government strengthened the determination of the national struggle in Anatolia and caused the people to despair of the Istanbul Government.At its meeting on 19 August 1920, the Grand National Assembly decided that those who were in the Shura-yi Sultanate, who signed and ratified the Treaty of Sevres, should be considered stateless, accusing them of treason. At the same time, the Government of the Grand National Assembly declared that it did not consider itself bound by this treaty in any way.

The War Of Liberation :

The Ottoman Empire participated in the First World War on the side of Germany. Although the Ottoman forces, who had come out of heavy and tiring wars, fought heroically during the war, they could not resist the invasion of the entire country by the enemy forces. The Mudros and Sevres Treaties signed at this time were prepared to completely destroy the Ottoman Empire and to break up the Turkish homeland. Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin decided to convene the Ottoman Parliamentary Assembly. The assembled assembly took a decision outside the views of the enemy states and accepted the National Pact. Thereupon, the British officially occupied Istanbul and dissolved the Ottoman Parliament.Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends, who started the National Struggle movement by landing in Samsun on May 19, 1919, organized the resistance movement in Anatolia. Congresses and Kuva-yı Milliye resistances were held. Finally, on April 23, 1920, it was decided to open the Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara.The Turkish nation emerged victorious from the War of Independence, which it entered by disregarding its life and property, and the enemies were expelled from their homeland. A great victory was won under the Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha. The new parliament demanded the abolition of the sultanate and the removal of the Ottoman dynasty from Turkish lands. Departing from Istanbul Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin, who saw his life in danger, appealed to the commander of the occupation forces in Istanbul and declared that he wanted to take refuge in the British state. On the morning of 17 November 1922, he left Istanbul with a British battleship named Malaya.After leaving the palace, Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin first went to Malta and then to Hejaz.After staying in Mecca for a while, he went to San Remo, Italy, and stayed there until his death.

Death :

Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin died on May 15, 1926, at the age of 65, in San Remo due to heart failure. It was his greatest desire to be buried in his homeland. However, because he knew that this would not be possible, he wanted to be buried in the territory of a country whose people were Muslim. He had chosen the Saladin's Tomb in Damascus, and that was his last wish.His body was left in the middle for a while due to the lien placed by the creditors. However, the Syrian President of the time, Ahmed Nami Bey, was very upset when he heard about the incident and paid all his debts and had his body brought to Syria. However, the Tomb of Saladin Eyyubi, whom he so desired to be buried, was full. Ahmed Nami Bey had Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin's body buried in the garden of Sultan Selim Mosque.

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