Biography of Sultan Mehmed Fatih / Extra History of Sultan Mehmed Fatih

 Biography of Sultan Mehmed Fatih. Welcome to Biography category. Today we will discuss life and achievements of Sultan Mehmed Fatih. In this article i will share Extra History of Sultan Mehmed Fatih.


Biography of Sultan Mehmed Fatih


  • Title: Sultan
  • Date of birth: 29 March 1432
  • Date of death: May 3, 1481
  • City: Edirne
  • Country: Turkey
  • Zodiac sign: RAM


Sultan Mehmed Fatih was born on March 29, 1432 in Edirne . His father is Sultan Murad II and his mother is Huma Hatun. Mehmed the Conqueror was a tall, full-cheeked, curved nose, muscular and strong sultan. He was one of the greatest ulama of his time and spoke seven foreign languages. He often gathered scholars, poets and artists and enjoyed chatting with them. He would write and review articles on interesting and unfamiliar topics. Akşemseddin, who also served as his teacher, is one of the most valued scholars of Sultan Mehmed Fatih. Mehmed the Conqueror was very cool and brave. He was a unique commander and administrator. He wouldn't say anything, even to his closest relatives, about what he was going to do.

 Sultan Mehmed Fatih loved to read. He read philosophical works translated into Persian and Arabic.In 1466, he had the Ptolemy Map translated again and had the names on the map written in Arabic letters. In scientific matters, he would protect scholars, regardless of their religion or sect, and have them dictate works. Sultan Mehmed Fatih, who attached great importance to science, had great scholars from foreign countries brought to Istanbul. As a matter of fact, Astronomy scholar Ali Kuşçu came to Istanbul in his own time. He invited the famous painter Bellini to Istanbul and had his own painting painted. He was poetic and open-minded.Mehmed the Conqueror ruled until 1481 and personally participated in 25 expeditions. He had determination and willpower. There was certainly a personality that implements the decisions and gave cautious. He was very harsh in government administration. He would be very brave in wars, and would encourage the soldiers to fight by pushing forward to prevent defeat.

 Sultan Mehmed II, who became the Ottoman sultan at the age of 20, took the title of Fatih by conquering Istanbul and eliminating the 1100-year-old Eastern Roman Empire. Sultan Mehmed Fatih, who also succeeded in becoming the great commander who conquered Istanbul, which was heralded in the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (SAV), was a Turkish ruler who made his friends and enemies accept his power with his high talent and genius.Cihan Emperor Fatih Sultan Mehmed, who closed the Middle Ages and opened the New Age, died on May 3, 1481 in Maltepe, Istanbul due to Nikris' illness and was buried in the Fatih Tomb next to the Fatih Mosque.


The Conquest Of Istanbul :

After Sultan Mehmed Fatih became the sultan, the first thing he did was to go on a campaign against the Karamanoğlu Principality, which was constantly causing uprisings. Karamanoğlu İbrahim Bey asked for forgiveness. Fatih forgave him because he thought about the conquest of Istanbul. Mehmed the Conqueror was gentle with the Hungarians, Serbs and Byzantines in order to realize his great goal. Its purpose was to prevent the Crusaders from uniting, not to provoke them and to gain time. Byzantium, which had come to the end of its thousand-year history, shrank into a state that ruled only within the borders of the city of Istanbul.However, the presence of Byzantium was dangerous for the Turkish domination in the Balkans.

 The Byzantine Emperors did not hesitate to provoke various political forces in Anatolia against the Ottomans. They even interfered with the throne fights between the Ottoman princes from time to time and disrupted the internal order of the state. The entry of Istanbul under the domination of the Ottoman Empire meant that another important advantage in terms of trade and culture was gained. The Straits would be taken under full control, and in this way, the Black Sea trade routes would be captured.

 Sultan Mehmed Fatih, who solved the Karamanoğulları issue, started the necessary preparations for the conquest of Istanbul. Musluhiddin, one of the engineers of the period, was tasked with casting balls in Edirne with Saruca Sekban, the Hungarian Urban who took refuge in the Ottomans. In addition to these cannons called "Şahi", wheeled turrets and the production of stabbing cannons (mortars) were among the preparations made. These large cannons built played an important role in the conquest of Istanbul. Rumeli Fortress (Boğazkesen) was built opposite the Anadolu Fortress, which was built by Yıldırım Bayezid during the siege of İstanbul. In this way, the control of the Straits would be ensured, and measures would be taken against the aid that could come from the sea. A navy of 400 pieces was built. An Ottoman fleet under the command of Turhan Bey was sent to Morea and aid was prevented from coming to Istanbul.

 The existing peace treaties with Wallachia and Serbia were renewed. A three-year treaty was also signed with the Hungarians.In the face of these preparations of the Ottomans, the Byzantines were not idle either. The walls were fortified and food was stored in the city. In addition, the Byzantine Emperor Constantine tried to prevent the danger from here by putting a chain on the Golden Horn. At the same time, the Crusader world was asked for help, and the Pope wanted the Catholic and Orthodox churches to be united in the face of his help. However, Orthodox Greeks, who hate Catholics, did not want to be affiliated with the Roman church, they said, "We are willing to see a Turkish turban rather than a Cardinal's Cone in Istanbul."After the preparations were completed, Mehmed the Conqueror sent an envoy to the Byzantine Emperor Constantine, demanding that the city be surrendered without bloodshed.

 However, upon the message from the Emperor that we are ready for war, the Ottoman army, which came in front of the land walls of Istanbul, started the siege on April 6, 1453.The Ottoman navy was anchored at the entrance of the Golden Horn and in front of Sarayburnu. Army; The center is divided into three parts, right and left. In the first attack on 19 April, wheeled towers were used and with this attack, the Topkapı walls were approached from the bastions. The number of privates in the Ottoman Army was between 150,000 and 200,000. Various forces affiliated to the Rumelian and Anatolian beys had also joined these forces. There were fierce battles, and the Byzantines immediately repaired the damaged parts of the city walls that protected the city. Venetians and Genoese were also helping Byzantium with their navies.

 Sultan Mehmed Fatih thought that the Ottoman navy was not used enough during the siege and therefore the siege was prolonged.It was known that the walls of Istanbul on the Golden Horn side were weak. For this reason, Byzantium had stretched the chain to this region. Stone cannonballs thrown from a height sank some ships from the Byzantine navy, but it was absolutely necessary that some of the navies be landed on the Golden Horn. Mehmed the Conqueror made an important decision that would facilitate the conquest of Istanbul. Some ships belonging to the Ottoman navy were to be withdrawn from the land and landed in the Golden Horn. Sledges were placed on a route starting from the shore in front of Tophane and reaching to Kasımpaşa. In order for the ships to slide over the slipways, olive oil, plain oil and lard were taken from the Genoese of Galata and the slipways were oiled. On the night of April 21-22, 67 (or 72) pieces of ships were lowered to the Golden Horn from the corrected route.

Cannons belonging to the Turkish navy in the Golden Horn began to beat the walls. Serious clashes took place. In the days that followed, artillery, arrows, rifle shots, sewer diggers, and the attacks of large and mobile war towers on the walls continued. The long duration of the siege and the lack of decisive success caused concern among the soldiers. However, Sultan Mehmed Fatih, who was determined to take Istanbul under any circumstances, held a meeting with commanders and scholars. After giving an encouraging speech, he announced his decision that a general attack would be made on 29 May. During the battles, inaccessible rifts began to open on the walls protecting Byzantium. There were minor infiltrations into the walls, but they were repulsed.After four major attacks that lasted 53 days and on 19 April, 6 May, 12 May and 29 May, Istanbul, the 1125-year-old capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, was conquered on Tuesday, 29 May 1453.The conquest of Istanbul brought with it very important results. After the conquest of Istanbul, Mehmed the Conqueror organized many expeditions on Europe in order to consolidate the dominance in the west, expand the borders, spread Islam to the farthest places and disrupt the Christian unity. With the campaigns of Serbia (1454, 1459), Peloponnese (1460), Wallachia (1462), Moldavia (1476), Bosnia-Herzegovina, Albania, Venice (1463-1479), Italy (1480) and Hungary, the Ottoman Empire consolidated its dominance in Europe. The Kingdom of Serbia was completely destroyed and turned into an Ottoman sanjak, Peloponnese was completely conquered, Wallachia was made an Ottoman province, Bosnia was again under Ottoman rule, Albania was captured. After 16 years of Ottoman-Venetian Sea Wars, Venice agreed to sign peace.


Conquest Of The Crimea And The Black Sea :

Sultan Mehmed Fatih wanted to dominate the Black Sea as well. Conquering the Black Sea into a Turkish Lake, Fatih began by conquering Amasra in 1459. In 1460, the Candaroğulları Principality was abolished. With the conquest of Trabzon in 1461 and Crimea in 1475, the Black Sea became a Turkish lake. In this way, the Genoese supremacy in the Black Sea came to an end and the entire control of the Silk Road passed to the Ottoman Empire.


Otlukbeli War :

After the death of Karamanoğlu İbrahim in 1464, his sons were at odds with each other. With the help of the Akkoyunlu ruler Uzun Hasan, İshak Bey got the Karamanoğlu principality. Thereupon, his other son, Pir Ahmed Bey, asked for help from Sultan Mehmed Fatih and, thanks to the help, captured the Principality. But when Pir Ahmed Bey went and agreed with the Venetians after a while, Sultan Mehmed Fatih, who was angry at this situation, decided to go on the Karaman Campaign. Konya and Karaman were taken and connected to the Ottoman Empire. The people of Karaman were immigrated to Istanbul and various places.Pir Ahmed Bey fled and took refuge in the Akkoyunlu ruler Uzun Hasan. This event caused a rift between the Ottomans and the Akkoyunlu. While the Ottomans were expanding their lands in Europe and Anatolia, the Akkoyunlu State had established dominance over Eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, Iran and Iraq. A great war was inevitable between the two Turkish States that expanded their borders. In the battle that took place in Otlukbeli on 11 August 1473, the Ottoman army, which had the most powerful warfare technique and tools of the period, dispersed Uzun Hasan's army, which was formed from strong cavalry, in a few hours. After this war, the Akkoyunlu people could not gather themselves again. In this way, Mehmed the Conqueror prevented the Akkoyunlu threat.He organized many expeditions in Anatolia and Rumelia and won many victories. Despite this, he avoided a hot war even though there were problems with the Mamluks, who were a powerful state in the south.


Situation In TheSea :

With the conquest of Istanbul, the dominance of trade routes passed to the Ottomans. However, the activity of the Venetians and Genoese continued in the seas. Fatih intensified his politics on the Aegean islands to ensure the security of trade routes and get rid of pirates. Expeditions were organized to the Aegean islands. New shipyards and ships were built. Although the Rhodes expedition was launched, it could not be taken.


Administrative Regulations :

Sultan Mehmed Fatih can be regarded as the administrative founder of the Ottoman state in the classical sense. After the conquest of Istanbul, he declared himself Kaiser-i Rum (Eastern Roman Emperor) and established state institutions. With the Fatih Kanunnamesi, he wrote down the traditions he called the Law of My Father-Dedem, and it was called Kanunname-i Ali Osman. Leaving the administration of the divan to the grand viziers, he started to follow the affairs behind the cage, and equipped the grand vizier, whom he called his absolute deputy, with broad powers.In addition, the duties of the treasurer, kazaskers and other high-level state officials are described.

 As the Janissary army was increased to 10.000 and a strong central army was formed, the importance of the border lords decreased, thus the central administration was strengthened. As the ruler of the most powerful state of Anatolia and Rumelia, he used the title of “Han” for the first time. After the conquest of Istanbul, the lands that were lost in the time of Yıldırım Bayezid were regained, and even new places were conquered on the shores of Rumelia and the Black Sea.With the conquest of Crimea, the Black Sea was turned into a Turkish lake, the unity of Anatolia was completed and the Turkish presence in Rumelia extended to Belgrade. Istanbul became a science and art center during the reign of Fatih, and Fatih madrasas formed the basis of classical Ottoman madrasahs. Scholars from all the Islamic world began to come to Istanbul, which has become a center of attraction for poets and scholars.


Fatih's Ahidnam On Human Rights :

When Mehmed the Conqueror conquered Bosnia, he brought religious freedom to the people of the region as a result of the Ottoman state policy. In the copy of the edict dated 883 (1478) given by Mehmed the Conqueror to the Latin priests here; “The Sign-ı Hümayun is that I am Sultan Mehmed Han; Let it be known by all the people in the upper and lower strata that I favored the Bosnian priests who carried this edict and ordered the following: Let there be safety to those who recklessly stand in my country and those who have fled, so that they can come to our country and remain fearlessly calm and settle in their churches; No one will interfere or hurt them in any way, neither by me nor by my viziers, nor by my people. themselves, their lives, their property, By Allah's right, for the right of our Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (pbuh), for the right of seven Mushafs, for the rights of one hundred and twenty-four thousand prophets, and for the sword I am girding, I swear with the heaviest oath that I have committed to the above-mentioned things. As long as the priests in question are obedient to my service and to my command, there will be no opposition by anyone.” As can be seen in this edict, minorities continued their lives in an environment of complete freedom.

 The foregoing will not be opposed by anyone as long as the priests in question are obedient to my service and to my command.” As can be seen in this edict, minorities continued their lives in an environment of complete freedom. The foregoing will not be opposed by anyone as long as the priests in question are obedient to my service and to my command.” As can be seen in this edict, minorities continued their lives in an environment of complete freedom.

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