Biography of Suleiman the Magnificent / Extra History of Suleiman the Magnificent

Biography of Suleiman the Magnificent. Welcome to Biography category. Today we will discuss life and achievements of  Suleiman the Magnificent. In this article i will share Extra History of Suleiman the Magnificent.

Biography of Suleiman the Magnificent

  • Title: Sultan
  • Date of birth: April 27, 1495
  • Date of death: September 7, 1566
  • City: Trabzon
  • Country: Turkey
  • Zodiac sign: Bull

Suleiman the Magnificent was born on Monday, April 27, 1495 in Trabzon . His father is Yavuz Sultan Selim and his mother is Hafsa Hatun. Hafsa Hatun is Ottoman or Circassian. He married Hürrem Sultan , his daughter is Mihrimah Sultan . Suleiman the Magnificent had a round face, hazel eyes, wide forehead, tall and sparse beard.The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent was a time when Turkish domination reached its peak. His father, Yavuz Sultan Selim, started to raise him meticulously from an early age. He received an unprecedented upbringing and education. He received his primary education from his mother and grandmother Gülbahar Hatun (Yavuz Sultan Selim's mother). When he was seven years old, he was sent to Istanbul for his education, to live with his grandfather, Sultan Bayezid II.

 While Prince Süleyman was taking history, science, literature and religion lessons from Karakızoğlu Hayreddin Hızır Efendi, he was also studying war techniques.Şehzade Süleyman, who stayed with his father Yavuz Sultan Selim until he was 15 years old, was appointed first to Şarki Karahisar, then to Bolu, and after a short time to Kefe, upon requesting a banner (1509). Prince Suleiman, who was summoned to Istanbul upon the accession of Yavuz Sultan Selim to the throne in 1512, remained in Istanbul during his father's struggles with his brothers and deputized for his father. Meanwhile, Saruhan was also in the sanjak principality. Upon the death of his father, Yavuz Sultan Selim, he ascended to the Ottoman throne on September 30, 1520, at the age of 25.His accession to the throne was easy and conflict-free, as he had no other brothers but himself. Suleiman the Magnificent, a very serious and confident sultan, had determination and willpower. He never rushed in what he was going to do, thought broadly and never backed down from his orders. He would assign tasks to the men he would bring to work, according to their level of ability. He died on September 7, 1566, at the age of 71, while leading the siege of Zigetvar.

The reason why he is called "the Law" is not because he invented new laws, but because he had the existing laws written and implemented them very strictly. Suleiman the Magnificent was a sultan who loved justice. The fact that he found the tax from Egypt excessive and thought that the people were being persecuted as a result of the research he had done and that he changed the Governor of Egypt is clear proof of this. When Suleiman the Magnificent ascended the throne, the Ottoman Empire was the richest and most powerful state in the world. The death of his father and the fact that he became the sultan made the Europeans happy, who thought, "The lion is dead, the lamb has taken his place". The Europeans, however, were soon disappointed.

Internal Riots :

Suleiman the Magnificent dealt with some internal rebellions in the first years of his sultanate. The rebellion of Canbirdi Gazeli, who was appointed by Yavuz Sultan Selim as the Governor of Damascus after the conquest of Egypt, is the first of these. Canbirdi Gazeli, whose aim was to re-establish the Mamluk state, was defeated by the Ottoman forces under the command of Şehsuvaroğlu Ali Bey, one of the Dulkadiroğulları, in January 1521, and was captured and executed. Suleiman the Magnificent dealt with the revolts of Ahmet Pasha, who argued that he should have the right to be the grand vizier in Egypt, Kalender Çelebi, who emerged in Anatolia with the support of the Safavids, and Baba Zünnun (1527), who rebelled using the tax system as an excuse. All these rebellions were successfully suppressed by the Ottoman forces.

Conquest Of Belgrade :

When Suleiman the Magnificent came to the throne, the most powerful state in Europe was the Roman-Germanic Empire (Germany). The German Emperor Charles V had established close kinship relations with the Hungarian king in order to dominate Hungary. Hungarian King Lui the Second did not pay his taxes, relying on Charles V, and had the Ottoman ambassadors sent to him killed. Mehmed the Conqueror had taken Serbia during his campaigns in Europe. However, Hungary, which has a strategic importance, could not be taken. Suleiman the Magnificent took action to take Hungary. Belgrade was besieged by the Ottoman fleet by land and on the Danube. Although the city was well defended, it had to surrender (29 August 1521). Bali Pasha was appointed as the Belgrade Guard. At the end of this time, some Belgraders who were sent to Istanbul were settled in the established Belgrade village. conquest of Belgrade, It is the first conquest of Suleiman the Magnificent. Belgrade became the biggest gate of the Ottoman Empire to Europe in the following years. For this reason, Belgrade was called "Darü'l-jihad".

Sharlken And Europe :

The German Emperor's aim was to dominate all of Europe. Charles V captured the King of France, Francis, who opposed his ideas. Duchess Dangolen, mother of the King of France, wrote a letter to Kanuni asking for help. Thereupon, Admiral Barboros Hayreddin Pasha went to the French city of Nis on the Mediterranean coast and defeated the fleet of Charles V. He saved both France and Francis.

The War Of Mohac : 

Seeing that Charlemagne was becoming a great danger, Suleiman the Magnificent decided to wage a war against Charlemagne upon the insistence of Francis. The Ottoman army crossed the Danube and entered Hungary. In the battle with the Hungarian army in Mohacs on 29 August 1526, the Hungarian army dispersed in two hours. The Battle of Mohacs resulted in a brilliant and glorious victory. Budin (Budapest) was taken. Hungary became a kingdom attached to the Ottoman Empire and Jan Zapolya, one of the Hungarian nobles, was appointed as its head.Siege of Vienna

The conquest of Hungary by the Turks brought Austria and the Turks face to face. After the Battle of Mohacs, Hungary became a buffer zone. Archduke Ferdinand of Austria did not want Hungary to fall under Ottoman rule. Ferdinand, with the support of Charles V, did not recognize Jan Zapolya and entered Budin. Suleiman the Magnificent, who went on the opposing expedition, took Budin back. Ferdinand and Charles V, who could not afford to fight, fled to Vienna, the capital of Austria, and Vienna was besieged (26 September 1529). As the winter season was approaching, the siege was lifted on 16 October. Although the Ottoman Empire could not obtain a result from the siege of Vienna, it strengthened its position in Hungary and prevented Europe from making a counterattack. Ferdinand, who did not give up his ambitions on Hungary, He sent an envoy to Kanuni and demanded that Hungary be given to him. In return, he agreed to pay taxes. Receiving a negative response to this demand, Ferdinand besieged Budin.

Hungry Exhibitions:

Suleiman the Magnificent, then, went on a campaign to Germany. Taking back Budin and advancing to Esztergom, the Ottoman forces raided into Austria and Germany. During the seven-month German campaign, many towns, cities and castles in Austria were conquered. Austria became devastated and exhausted at the end of these wars. Thereupon Ferdinand asked for peace. With the signed Istanbul Treaty, Ferdinand and Charles's efforts to seize both Hungary and all of Europe were inconclusive (22 July 1533). Ferdinand had no intention of giving up his ambitions on Hungary. Jan Zapolya died and was succeeded by his son Sigismund. Taking advantage of this, Ferdinand besieged Budin. Then, in 1540, Kanuni again went on a campaign to Hungary and entered Budin with a very strong army. He appointed Sigismund to the Erdel Principality and made Hungary a province of Budin under the Ottoman Empire. Süleyman Pasha was appointed to the governorship of this region. Only northern Hungary remained in Austrian hands. The relations between Ottoman-Hungary, Germany and Austria, which were one of the important political events of the Kanuni period, continued until the death of Kanuni.

Zigetvar Castle :

Suleiman the Magnificent, dealing with internal revolts in Anatolia and the Iranian State in the East, set out on Hungary for his last campaign in 1566. The castle of Zigetvar was besieged, but while the siege continued, Suleiman the Magnificent passed away. Despite the news of the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, who carried the Ottoman Empire from victory to victory, the castle was conquered (September 7, 1566).

Capitulations :

The Capitulations, which were given to the Genoese for the first time in 1352, gave the foreign merchants, who were accepted as darülharb, the right to trade in the Ottoman lands. However, the Ottoman Empire used its trade privileges within the framework of its political and diplomatic interests and gave it to the states with which it would ally. The Capitulation draft prepared by the French in 1535, while in a friendly atmosphere with France, was not approved by the Ottoman Sultan. According to this draft, the principle of equal conditions and reciprocity was introduced. However, the Ottoman State was called Ahidname because the sultan's unilateral oath was given with the "Agreement" and it had to be renewed every time the sultan changed. The first French Capitulation was granted in 1569 before the Cyprus campaign. In 1580, to England, which was a Protestant, to form an alliance against the Catholic world and the Pope's embargo,In addition to the right to trade in the capitulations, the rights of the merchant, customs duties, court procedures, road permits, and safety issues were specified in detail. As the Ottoman state weakened, the number of capitulations increased in the states, and they turned it into a tool of oppression. With the declaration of the First World War, in 1914, despite all protests, the Capitulations were abolished unilaterally.

Ottoman And Safevis :

While Suleiman the Magnificent was gaining success in Europe, internal rebellions broke out in Anatolia, and the Safavid Empire, which was established in Iran to replace the collapsed Akkoyunlu state, continued to be a serious threat to the Ottoman Empire in the east. Suleiman the Magnificent set out on his first expedition to Iran, after establishing peace in Europe, albeit temporarily, with the Treaty of Istanbul. The hostile policies of the Safavid State and the provocations of the Shiites living in Anatolia caused this expedition to be organized. Tabriz, Azerbaijan and Hamedan were invaded. Baghdad was taken with the Irakeyn campaign (1534).Safavid Shah Tahmasb, who wanted to take advantage of Kanuni's expedition to Austria, captured Tabriz, Nakhchivan and Van, using the excuse that his brother took refuge in the Ottomans. Thereupon, Suleiman the Magnificent decided to go to Iran for the second time. Van and Tabriz were taken back from the Iran Campaign (1548). The Safavids attacked again in 1553. The enemy forces advancing in Eastern Anatolia came as far as Muş and besieged Erzurum. Suleiman the Magnificent went on his third Persian expedition. Revan, Nakhchivan and Karabakh were taken. Upon the request of Shah Tahmasb, who was in a difficult situation, peace was made and the Treaty of Amasya was signed (1555).With this treaty, the Iranian problem, which has been going on since the Yavuz period, was resolved. Eastern Anatolia, Tabriz and Baghdad remained under Ottoman rule. The Treaty of Amasya is the first official treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Iran. It is also the first religious peace in the Islamic world.

The Conquest Of Rhodes :

Europeans had dominated the islands in the Mediterranean such as Rhodes, Cyprus, Crete and Malta, made discoveries in the open seas and increased their power in the seas. During the Kanuni period, importance was given to maritime and great successes were achieved. During the Kanuni period, the island of Rhodes was in the hands of the knights of Sen Jan. The knights were pirating and harming the Turkish navy. Rhodes was conquered by an expedition in 1522.

Algeria's Joining With The Ottoman :

Algeria was taken from the Spaniards in 1516 by Father Oruç and his brother Hızır Reis (Barbaros). In 1518, Barbarossa became the ruler of Algeria. Previously, Yavuz gave them two galleys and a beam upon the request of these two sailors for help. Kanuni summoned Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha to Istanbul and appointed him as the Chief of the Admiralty (1533). Thus, Algeria joined the Ottoman lands. Barbarossa took the islands in the hands of the Venetians in the Aegean Sea.

Preveze Sea Victory :

The strengthening of the Ottomans in the Mediterranean and their domination of the entire Aegean Sea alarmed Europe. In addition, the ongoing Austrian and Hungarian campaigns led to the preparation of a large Crusader fleet. In the Crusader navy under the command of Andrea Doria, besides Venetian and Genoese, he was on ships belonging to Malta, Portugal and Spain. The Crusader navy was 602 and the Ottoman navy was only 122 pieces. The Ottoman navy under the command of Barbaros Hayreddin achieved a great victory in the war fought in the Gulf of Preveza on September 27, 1538. At the end of this war, which went down in history as the Preveza Naval Victory, the Mediterranean became a Turkish Lake.

Take Of Triplus Grab :

After Charlemagne took Tripoli, Sen Jan Knights were stationed here. Barbarossa's victory in Preveza and the Venetians' signing of peace with the Ottomans angered Charles V and the Pope. The Crusader navy, which was prepared, attacked Algeria, but was defeated by the Ottoman navy (1541). Turgut Reis, raised by Barbaros, took Tripoli by siege from land and sea. In addition, Benghazi joined the Ottoman country with this expedition (1551).

The War Of Circus :

After Turgut Reis besieged the island of Djerba, which was in the hands of the Spaniards, a Crusader fleet under the command of Andrea Doria came to the aid of the Spaniards. A great victory was won in the Battle of Djerba. Djerba passed to the Ottomans (1559).

Malta Experience :

The knights of Sen Jan, who were settled in Malta after the conquest of Rhodes, were a danger to the Ottomans. Malta had to be taken for the safety of Tripoli and Algeria. Turgut Reis was martyred during the siege. Malta was not taken (1565).

Indian Exhibitions :

After the geographical discoveries, the search for colonies began, Portugal and Spain obtained many colonies. The Portuguese were trying to dominate the Red Sea and Indian trade routes. The discovery of the Cape of Good Hope also dealt a great blow to the spice trade of the Ottomans. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, four Indian naval expeditions were organized for these reasons. However, due to the fact that the Ottoman navy was not suitable for the ocean conditions, none of these expeditions were fully successful. Piri Reis was the head of the Ottoman navy in the Second Indian Campaign in 1551. Piri Reis, who has an important place in Turkish Maritime history, took Muscat during this expedition and defeated the Portuguese navy. However, considering that the Portuguese would close the Persian Gulf, Piri Reis was executed in Egypt because he left the navy in Basra and returned with the spoils. However, Yemen, Eritrea, the Sudanese coasts and parts of Abyssinia were still included in the Ottoman lands. The Arabian peninsula came under Ottoman control. Ottoman sovereignty was achieved by closing the Red Sea to foreign powers.

Zoning Studies (Architecture) :

Suleiman the Magnificent remained in the reign for 46 years. He increased the Ottoman lands, which he inherited from his father, Yavuz Sultan Selim, as 6,557,000 square kilometers, to 14,893,000 square kilometers. Construction activities continued during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, and as the first job, he completed the Istanbul Sultan Selim Mosque, the foundations of which were laid by his father, Yavuz Sultan Selim. Apart from that, some of the works he commissioned are as follows; Coban Mustafa Pasha Mosque and Complex in Gebze, Sinan Pasha Mosque in Afyon, Kasim Pasha Mosque in Bozöyük.

Architect Sinan :

Mimar Sinan, the great architect of the heyday of the Ottoman Empire and a world-class artist, produced many works during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. The most important of these are: Aleppo Hüsrev Pasha Mosque, Istanbul Haseki Complex, Istanbul Sehzade Mosque and Madrasa, Uskudar Mihrimah Mosque, Istanbul Suleymaniye Mosque and Complex, Tekirdag Rüstem Pasha Mosque and Complex, Silivri Kapi İbrahim Pasha Mosque, Istanbul Rüstem Pasha Mosque, Istanbul Sinan Pasha Mosque, Topkapi Kara Ahmet Pasha Mosque and Complex, Fındıklı Molla Çelebi Mosque, Babaeski Semiz Ali Pasha Mosque, Büyükçekmece Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Complex and Bridge, Süleymaniye Lodge. Suleiman the Magnificent, a great statesman, was also a famous poet. One of his famous poems is as follows: "There is nothing honorable among the people like the state, There is no state in the world, like a breath of health. What they call sultanate is a world fight, Blessed to be, like unity in the world”.

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