Extra History of Mughal Empire || Fall Of Mughal Empire

 Mughal Empire :

The increasing Turkish population in Inner Asia, first in the Ghazni State and then in the Timurid State, had not yet become a large state after the collapse of the Ghazni and Timurid States, and continued their existence as small principalities and non-state monarchies. One of these local principalities, the Fergana Reign, was ruling in the Fergana region under the rule of Sheikh Ömer Mirza, one of Timur's grandsons.

Extra History of Mughal Empire || Fall Of Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire was founded by Zahiruddin Muhammed Babur in Delhi in 1526, and continued its existence until 1858, when it was destroyed as a result of British colonialism and formed the infrastructure of today's Indian State. 

The increasing Turkish population in Inner Asia, first in the Ghazni State and then in the Timurid State, had not yet become a large state after the collapse of the Ghazni and Timurid States, and continued their existence as small principalities and non-state monarchies. One of these local principalities, the Fergana Reign, was ruling in the Fergana region under the rule of Sheikh Ömer Mirza, one of Timur's grandsons.

When Sheikh Ömer Mirza, Khan of the Fergana Dynasty, died in 1504, his eldest son Zahiruddin Muhammed Babur would take over as the heir to the sultanate. However, Zahiruddin Muhammed, who was only 21 years old, had to flee to Kabul with his army when his uncle started a struggle for sovereignty by claiming the sultanate. He gained strength here, declared himself the heir of Timur and laid the foundations of the Mughal Empire (1507).

After attaining a decent power in Kabul, he advanced as far as the Sind River in 1519. He expanded the area of ​​domination by taking the Punjab region from the local rulers, and 3 years later, he crossed the Sind river and added the Balochistan region to his lands. Zahiruddin Muhammed Khan, who struggled with the local rulers until the Balochistan region, encountered Ibrahim Ludi, who had established a powerful state in the Delhi region. Ibrahim Ludi, who ruled Delhi as an invincible power with his huge army of 100 thousand people, was in a state of fear in his region with thousands of war elephants and heavy infantry. Zahiruddin Muhammed Khan had only 13 thousand horsemen. After two years of preparation, Zahiruddin Muhammed Khan, who strengthened his army, had a small artillery unit through a commander named Mustafa Rumi, an Ottoman immigrant. He strengthened his army by supplying some firearms, and in 1524 he marched on Delhi and engaged in a great struggle with Ibrahim Ludi. Gaining a significant advantage with the artillery units and firearms provided by Mustafa Rumi, he defeated the Ludi army of 13 thousand and the Ludi army of 100 thousand, bought 1000 war elephants and gave his army a tremendous power.

Extra History of Mughal Empire || Fall Of Mughal Empire

Zahireddin Muhammed Khan, who became the ruler of Delhi, Sind and Balochistan, started to work to nationalize his dominance, organized the state organization and army within two years, and became a state in 1526, bringing the Mughal Empire to the stage of history.

Rulers Of Mughal Empire :

  1. Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
  2. Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun
  3. Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar 
  4. Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim Jahangir
  5. Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram Shah jahan
  6. Muhio-ud-din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir
  7. Qutub-ud-din Muhammad Azam Shah
  8. Qutub-ud-din Muhammad Muazzam Shah Alam Bahadur Shah
  9. Muizz-ud-din Jahandar Shah Bahadur
  10. Farrukh Siyar
  11. Rafi-ud-din Darajat
  12. Rafi ud Daulah Shah jahan ii
  13. Roshan Akhtar bahadur Muhammad Shah
  14. Ahmad Shah Bahadur
  15. Aziz-ud-din Alamgir ii
  16. Muhi-ul-Millat Shah Jahan iii
  17. Ali Gauhar Shah Alam ii
  18. Bidar Bakhat Mahmud Shah Bahadur Jahan Shah IV
  19. Ali Gauhar Shah Alam ii
  20. Mirza Akbar Shah ii
  21. Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar Bahadur Shah ii

Fall of the Mughal Empire :

After Bahadır Shah's death, his son Jahangir Shah succeeded him. However, the reign of jahangir Shah was limited to only a few months. Unable to suppress the revolts, Bahadur Shah was deposed by his brother Ferruh (1713). Ferruh Khan managed to stay in the ruler ship for 6 years, but the rebellions that could not be suppressed during his rule brought an end to it. The Afghans' rebellion activities were not limited to looting and plunder, but turned into offensive and siege movements, and the gradual strengthening of the local rulers, Rajahs, Rajputs and Sikhs, deposed Ferruh Khan and he was deposed by his brother Shah Jahan Sani (1719).

Shah Jahan Sani's end was just like his brother's. The other heir to the throne, Mohammed Shah, deposed Shah Jahani Sani and took his place. The conflicts in the sultanate further fueled the rebellion and rebellion activities in the country. As a result of the endless struggles for the reign, the country was actually divided into two (1723). The opposition heirs of the sultanate united their existing forces and declared their own administration by dividing the country from the Hyderabad line. Mughal Empire, currently unable to fight internal rebellions this time, it became completely unmanageable as a result of the disintegration of its current power with the armies drawn by the heirs of the sultanate who were struggling for dominance. Mohammed Shah suffered a great loss of power as a significant part of his army supported the conflict movements. Nadir Shah, the last ruler of the Safavid State, took advantage of the internal and external problems of the Mughal Empire, entered Delhi, plundered the city and collected great booty. The loot he obtained from the Palace treasury alone was worth 700 Million Rupees (1738). Mughal Empire After the country was divided into two, it lost Delhi as well. When Mohammed Shah passed away in 1747, the country was in a much more dire situation than when he came to the throne. Upon the death of Muhammed Shah, his son Alamgir Ahmet Bahadur Shah succeeded him (1747).

Extra History of Mughal Empire || Fall Of Mughal Empire

Ahmed Bahadır Shah could not cope with any of the deep and unresolved problems he inherited from his father. Afghans declared their independence. Not content with this, they captured many Mughal cities. The state was getting smaller and smaller. On the other hand, the British and Dutch colonialists, taking advantage of the emerging authority vacuum, began to apply pressure and oppression on the people. The people, who had been enriched by the commercial activities of the British colonialists for a period, became dependent on them when the colonial companies took over the state economy. When both British and Dutch companies took the initiative in the country's economy, they used cheap labor opportunities to the fullest, forcing the people to work at a low cost. The Mughal people are now entirely using the consumer products of colonial companies, In order to buy these products, they had to work in colonial companies for very low wages. The reign of Ahmed Bahadur Shah did not last long under these conditions. His brother, Alamgir Sani Shah, dethroned Ahmed Bahadur Shah.He took over the reign of the Mughal Empire (1753).

Although Alamgir Sani Shah tried to fight the Afghan offensives and rebellions of Indian local rulers, he was unsuccessful. In addition, the struggle for the sultanate was still going on. The intrigues that emerged in the palace prepared the end for the Sani Shah. He was killed by his vizier, who collaborated with his brother Alem Sami Shah, and was replaced by Shah Alem Sami Shah (1760).

Shahi Alem Sami Shah followed a more combative attitude compared to the shortsighted rule of his brothers. Afghans took many Mughal cities and seized regional governments as a result of local rulers' revolts. It did not seem possible to deal with internal problems. For this reason, it started a struggle with the British and Dutch colonialists, who delayed the solution of internal problems and exploited the country's economy. Because the British, a period of Mughal Empire the pretext of securing the sea lanes troops now deployed in the Mughal Empire He began to use it as a threat. Although his Shah, Alem Sami Shah, achieved partial success by struggling with the British colonial forces, he was defeated by the British forces in the Baskar war in 1764 and lost both his reign and his state. After the defeat of Baskar, the Mughal Empire began to be ruled under the control of the British colonialists and the British Kingdom itself.

After the Baskar War, the British, who dominated the imperial office, started to use the rulers they appointed after Shah Alam Sami Shah as civil servants. The Mughal Empire was ruled for 100 years by these official rulers, who served the purposes of the British State, not the interests of the country. During this time the Mughal Empire Although the name of the city remained, there was neither independence nor an independent state. During the reign of Akbar Shah, the Indians, whose influence increased in the state with the Indians taking part in the state organization, gradually settled in all positions in the state organization except the sultanate family. As a reflection of this political manifestation, with the acceptance of the Indians in the conquered Indian geography as subjects, the Turkish influence was gradually decreasing and becoming a minority, just as in the palace, with the Indians becoming the majority. This Indianization trend, which started during the reign of Akbar Shah, continued to increase over time, and the Mughal Empire In the period when the Ottoman Empire was in the process of collapse, the state ceased to be a Turkish State and became an Indian State. Taking advantage of this situation, the British Colonists did not see any resistance to the oppression they applied on the native Indian people, who could not unite around a central authority. Thus, they were able to continue their colonial activities for many years.

The Mughal Empire, moribund under the colonial activities of the British State In 1858, the last British official Shah, Shah Bahadur, was dethroned and the British State declared the Mughal Territories British territory and appointed a governor. After this date, it was only possible for the Indian geography to regain its independence in 1948. The independence movement, which started with Mahatma Gandhi during the First World War, ended successfully at the end of the Second World War, and Independent India was established in 1948. The Mughal Empire, with its historical adventure, political identity and cultural heritage, formed the foundations of today's Indian and Pakistani states.

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