Turkish States and Principalities in History || Turkish History

 Turkish States and Principalities in History (outside Turkey)

Archaeological Period of Turkish History :

Many kurgans and accommodation areas have been found in the vast steppes stretching from the upper and middle parts of the Kem (Yenisei) river to the Danube river in Siberia without the need for archaeological excavations in many places. Especially the number of kurgans opened in Kem, Ob, Ertiş rivers and Altaylar (Golden Yiş) is higher than other regions. These kurgans have survived to the present day without any destruction due to the fact that they are considered sacred as an ancestral heritage by the Turks still living in these regions. We will chronologically classify the kurgans and accommodation places of the ancient Turks in the Eurasian steppes as follows.

Turkish States and Principalities in History  || Turkish History

Stone Age (from 10th millennium BC to 1700 BC) :

This age can also be classified within itself:

a. Late Coarse-Stone Age: Remains of Mount Afont from this period have been found, dating back to BC. It is estimated to be around 10,000 years old.

b. Chipped-Stone Age: BC. Various artifacts from this age of 8000-3000 years have survived to the present day.

NS. Stone-Copper Age: Afanesyevo Culture from this age is very important. The Afhanesyevo culture was unearthed in the steppes northwest of the Altai-Sayan Mountains, in what is now called Minusinsk. BC In this culture, which belongs to the years 2500-1700, for the first time, sheep bones were found together with horse remains. It shows that it has been known since 2500 years.

Mining Age :

a. Bronze Age

Andronova Culture: BC. This culture, which is claimed to belong to the years 1700-1200/1000, was unearthed in the Afhanesyevo cultural region, namely in Minusinsk.

Tuva (Tuba) Bronze Ruins: These ruins found in the Uluğ Kem region today called Tuva/Tuba date back to BC. It belongs to the years 2000-700. These cultural remains belong to the Ting-Lingler, who are considered to be the ancestors of the Turks in many parts of Central Asia.

Kazakh Bronze Ruins: 

These ruins date back to BC. It belongs to the years 2000-700.

Karasug Culture: BC. It belongs to the years 1300-700 and emerged in the same region as the Köğmen mountains, Kem/Yenisey, Kemçik, Uluğ-Kem, Abakan river, that is, in the same region as the Afanesyevo and Andronova cultures, namely in Minusinsk. BC Ting-Lings, who migrated to the region from the east towards 1400-1300, are considered to be the ancestors of all Turkish-speaking tribes in Asia in the historical period. The name Ting-Ling was given because of the four-wheeled high chariots of these tribes on which tents (yurt) can be set up, and later on, Chinese sources will refer to these Proto Turks as Kao-ch'e, which means oxcart.

Karasug culture, BC. It has spread to the Siberia region, Baikals, Mongolia and Yedi-water basins since 700 BC and has influenced the cultures here.

The Culture of Flat Tombs: The Ötüken Mountains (Hangay) in the southeast of Lake Baikal, the Selenge, Orkun, Temir rivers and around Lake Baikal. The culture of flat stone tombs that emerged towards the 1000 BC dates from the Late Bronze Age period. This culture is the product of the northern Ting-Lings, who are considered to be the ancestors of the Uighur Turks. Ötüken (Hangay) Mountains, which are the continuation of the Köğmen Mountains to the southeast, are one of the oldest centers of the Turkish world together with the Köğmen Mountains region. This culture that emerged here is very similar to the Tagar Culture that emerged in the Minusinsk region.

Turkish States and Principalities in History  || Turkish History

b. Iron Age

Sleeping (Tuva) Culture: BC. It emerged between 700-200 BC. It will turn into the Surmak Culture from the year 200 and this culture was founded by İ.S. It will continue until 300 years. The center of the Uyuk/Şurmak cultures is also the Uluğ Kem region.

Tagar Culture: B.C. 700-AD. It emerged around the Köğmen Mountains, Kem, Kemçik, Uluğ-Kem and Abakan Rivers between 100 BC. This region, which we also call Minusinsk, was founded in BC. A new migration of the Ting-Ling tribes from the Kaghni Turks took place in 700-600 years and the Karasug Culture, which was dominant in the region, was transformed into the Tagar Culture.

Threshold / Threshold Remains: The excavation carried out in Esik Avdani (Kapi Kaza) 50 km from Alma-Ata, the center of Kazakhstan in March 1969, was concluded in March 1970. During the excavation carried out by Kazakh scientists under the presidency of Kemal Akişev, a member of the Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences, a man's corpse with an armor encrusted with gold and 4000 pieces of gold items were found. The geographical area where the Esik ruins are found consists of the surroundings of Işık-göl, Alatağ, İli Valley, Kuz-orda and Taraz between the Çu-Talas rivers. There are many common points in terms of race and culture between the culture unearthed in the Esik tombs and the Sakai period tombs in the Ili Valley and the Pazirik period tombs in the Altay/Altun-yiş mountains.

From the Köğmen Mountains to the southwest, the Western Altai, Tarbagatay, Tanrı Dağları/Tien-schan and Alatağ ranges extend parallel to each other until Işık-göl. Steppes and plateaus stretch along the northern skirts of these mountains and have been known as the homeland of Turks since ancient times. BC In 176 and 43 years, the Uyghurs lived in the north of Isik-gol, and the Kyrgyz lived about 200 km northwest of Isik-gol. The Talas River valley was the center of the Kyrgyz. The region, known as the meeting place of various Turkish communities such as Kaghni tribes, Uyghur and Kyrgyz in the centuries before Christ, dates back to BC. VI.-III. It was the homeland of Central Asian nomads called Sakai in the centuries. BC III. Towards the centuries, tribes referred to as K'ang-ku and Wu-sun in Chinese sources begin to appear in the same region.

Turkish States and Principalities in History  || Turkish History

In the tombs of Esik (V.-IV. century BC), remains were found on a silver vessel, inscribed with the archaic form of Kök-Türk letters. Although most of the tombs of Esik were looted, a tomb belonging to a 16-year-old boy was unearthed in the south of the region, intact. The items on the young person are very important in terms of our subject. The mountain goat motif on the bork immediately catches the eye. In addition, pictures of horses, mountain goats, deer, tigers, leopards, wolves and birds of prey are generally seen on the four thousand gold plates found in the tomb. There are many similarities between the Esik finds and the Tagar Culture and Kumurtuk ruins on the banks of the Chulishman River in Altays.

Tastik Culture: BC. 300-BC It belongs to 400 BC and emerged around the Köğmen Mountains, Kem, Kemçik, Uluğ-Kem, Abakan River. The mountain goat motif is seen in large numbers among the various small animal sculptures and depictions among the remains of Taştık Culture. Among these statues and depictions, mountain goat statues erected next to flag poles, similar to the Kök-Türk Kagan stamp, draw attention. The creators of this culture BC. They are the Turkish tribes of Kagni who came from the east towards 300 BC. These tribes, who transformed the Tagar Culture into Taştik Culture, spread this culture to all Turkish-speaking communities in the region in a short time. Kiselev directly accepts Taştik Culture as the pioneer of Kyrgyz and Kok-Turk cultures.

Mayemir and Pazirik Culture: The cultures of Pazirik, Shibe and Mayemir, which are mentioned as Argyppoi in Herodotes and attributed to the tribes of Kagni, with tribes estimated to be Turkish, are the Altun-yis (Altai) Mountains, Yaris (Cungarya) Plateau, Tarbagatay Mountains, Kara İrtiş and Yumar (Ob). ) originated around the valleys. The Taştik Culture, which emerged in the Köğmen region, was transformed into the Mayemir Culture in the Altai regions. The tribes that carried the Taştık Culture to the Altai region came from the Köğmen Mountains region, and the Pazirik tombs date back to BC. IV-İ.S. II. is centuries old.

Pazyryk tombs were first discovered in 1929 by two Leningrad scientists, SI Rudenko and MP Greyaznov. The first tomb was found in the Ulagan Valley at an altitude of 1600 m in Siberia. At the end of the excavations carried out in this place called Pazirik, the completely frozen, intact Pazirik tomb was unearthed with its contents. Rudenko later came back to the region with a delegation in 1947-1949 and discovered four more tombs. From Pazirik tombs, BC. IV.-II. carpets, clothing, shoes, a ceremonial chariot, mummified corpses of men and women, horses with ornate and rich harnesses, various instruments and musical instruments were unearthed. On the other hand, Potapov, BC.

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