Extra History of European Hun State || The Turkish States

European Hun Empire

  • Date of Foundation: 375 
  • Date of Founding: 454
  • Founder: Balamir
  • Capital: Etzelburg
  • Language: Hun Turkish
  • Head of State: Emperor

Extra History of European Hun State || The Turkish States

 Towards the end of the century, the Huns, who migrated to the west under the leadership of Balamir IV, caused the Migration of Tribes. While some of the Huns headed for Eastern Anatolia, some of them, after Balamir's death, founded the European Hun Empire by crossing the Carpathian mountains and entering Hungary under the leadership of Ildız, who is thought to be his son or grandson.

Star Period :

The foreign policy of the European Hun Empire was determined at the time of Ildiz. According to this policy; Byzantium would be suppressed and cooperation would be made with the Western Roman Empire against the Germanic tribes. The appearance of the Huns along the Danube started the second great wave of the Migration of Tribes. As a result of this, when the Barbarian Tribes started to enter the Roman lands, Western Rome asked for help from Ildiz. On the one hand, Ildiz saved Western Rome from the Germanic (Barbarian) tribes, and on the other hand, forced the Germanic tribes such as Vandal, Süev, Alan to migrate across the Rhine to Gaul (France).

Ildiz, who crossed the Danube in 409 and wanted to show his power to Byzantium, challenged the Byzantine ambassador sent to negotiate peace with him, saying, "I can conquer any place up to where the sun goes down". In the time of Ildiz, the Huns had extensive lands stretching from Central Europe to the east of the Caspian Sea. As a result of his work, the Huns emerged as a powerful state with central authority in the V century. After Ildiz's death in 410, Karaton took his place. Information about the Karaton period, which reigned for about ten years, is extremely scarce.

Extra History of European Hun State || The Turkish States

Rua Period :

After Karaton, in 422, Rua, one of the four brothers belonging to the Hun ruler family, ruled the country with his other brothers Muncuk, Oktar and Aybars. Rua organized an expedition against Byzantium, using the spies he sent to the Hun lands as an excuse, in order to provoke the Byzantine Hun Army to rebellion and to separate the affiliated tribes from the Huns (422). Byzantium, which could not show any resistance, was tied to a heavy tax. Meanwhile, Western Rome was in internal turmoil. The Byzantine emperor, who wanted to take advantage of this situation, II. Theodosius (408-450) sent an army and navy on Italy. As a result of these developments, Western Rome asked Rua for help. When Rua, the ruler of the Huns, turned towards Italy with a force of 60 thousand, II. Theodosius had to withdraw before he could risk a fight. However, Byzantium He did not hesitate to provoke the communities living under the rule of the Huns whenever he had the opportunity. Thereupon, Rua forbade the Byzantine merchants to trade and recruit mercenaries in the Hun country. He died in 434 while preparing for a new campaign against Byzantium. He was succeeded by Attila, son of his brother Muncuk.

Attila Period :

After Rua, Attila and his brother Bleda took over the Huns together (434). Since Attila lost his father at a young age, he grew up with his uncle Rua, participated in the wars together, and had the opportunity to learn the state administration and Hun politics. Although he shared the throne with his elder brother Bleda, all authority was vested in Attila.

Attila wanted to reorganize Hun-Byzantine relations. In 434, the Byzantines, who learned that Attila had begun preparations for the expedition that Rua was planning to do on Byzantium and could not, sent peace envoys to him. The Hun ruler Attila also met the ambassadors in front of the Margos Castle, located at the confluence of the Danube and Morova rivers. Attila dictated his wishes as terms of peace. Thus, the Treaty of Margos with Byzantium was signed in 434. According to the agreement;

– Byzantium would double the tax it was paying to the Huns,
– Byzantium would not make negotiations and agreements with the tribes affiliated with the Huns,
– Commercial relations would continue in the border towns,
– Byzantium would return the Hun captives it held.

After Bleda's death in 445, Attila became the sole ruler of the Huns. Attila's goal was to dominate the Eastern and Western Roman empires.

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Attila's Aid to Western Rome :

Attila took the eastern part of the country under his control after the Treaty of Margos. He suppressed the uprisings of the Ak-Ogurs in the Volga and subdued them (435). Meanwhile, Western Rome, which was in internal turmoil, asked for help from the Huns. The Hun troops, who came to help the Roman commander Aetyus, suppressed the rebellion. A Hun army under the command of Oktar won a great victory against the Burgonds (436). Legends emerged over time about this war, and the Hun-Burgond struggle was the subject of the famous German Nibelungen epics.

Attila's Campaigns :

First Balkan Campaign (441–442)

When Byzantium did not comply with the terms of the Treaty of Margos, and the Byzantine merchants deceived the Huns by making fraudulent commercial relations, Attila set out on a campaign against Byzantium. Byzantium, afraid of the Hun army advancing to Eastern Thrace, demanded peace (442). According to this agreement; Byzantium would increase the tax it was paying. In addition, Attila, who captured some border castles and castles along the Danube, thus opened the way to the Balkans to the Hun armies.
II. Balkan Campaign (447)

Attila again went on a campaign against Byzantium (447) due to reasons such as Byzantium's slowness in returning the Hun fugitives, provoking some Germanic tribes under the Hun rule, and not wanting to pay the annual tax (447). A branch of the Hun army, which was divided into two, entered Greece and advanced as far as Thessaly. The other arm under Attila's rule captured the cities of Sofia, Plovdiv and Lüleburgaz and went as far as the Büyük Çekmece. Byzantine Emperor II. Theodosius had to ask for peace.
This treaty between the Byzantine ambassador Anatolyos and Attila is called the Treaty of Anatolyos. According to this;

– Byzantium would triple the annual tax it paid, Byzantium would pay war indemnity,
– A common market would be established in Nis,
– The places within a five-day distance south of the Danube would be demilitarized.

Extra History of European Hun State || The Turkish States
Western Roman (Gaul) Campaign (451)

Believing that he had absolute dominance over Byzantium, Attila turned to Western Rome this time. He needed to find an excuse for his expedition on Western Rome. Emperor II, who had sent him an engagement ring before. He reported that Valantien accepted the offer of his sister Honoria (Honorya). He wanted half of the empire as a dowry. Considering the rejection of this request as a reason for war, Attila went on a Western Roman expedition. The two armies met on the Catalonian Plain of Gaul, considered the military depot of Western Rome. At the head of the Western Roman army was a commander named Aetyus (Aetius). The war was very fierce. The winner of the battle, which lasted for one day, is not clear. However, after this war, the Roman General Aetyus was discredited and they could not raise a military force against Attila, who was marching on Rome a year later, It is proof that the Western Roman Empire eliminated Gaul, which was a military depot. The fact that the Roman army did not confront Attila is a proof that the Romans suffered great losses in this war.

Expedition to Italy (452)

Attila entered Italy, which was immediately deprived of support and fell out of favor, in 452, by crossing the Alps with an army of one hundred thousand men. Italy could not put an army against Attila. The Roman Senate fell into great fear and immediately decided to send a delegation to Attila for peace talks, headed by Pope Leon I.

Pope Leon I asked Attila to spare Rome on behalf of the entire Christian world. Attila, avoiding the destruction of Rome, an ancient center of civilization, accepted the Pope's request and returned. After Attila neutralized Byzantium and Western Rome, he turned to the Sassanid Empire in Persia. With the domination of this state, the Huns would be able to dominate the world. However, Attila died in 453 on his return from Italy and was unable to complete this expedition.

At the time of Attila's death, the Hun's frontiers extended to Denmark and the Rhine to the west, and beyond the Volga to the east. Attila is one of the great statesmen of history. His name has not fallen into words until today, operas have been composed for him, films have been made, and his paintings and sculptures have been made. He had a strong will. He was a simple and modest ruler, capable of serious and great deeds.

The Fall of the European Hun Empire :

When Attila died, he had three sons named Ilek, Dengizik and Irnek. His sons, who succeeded him, did not succeed in the administration of the state. Fights for the throne weakened the Huns. Ilek, who first became the head of the Huns, died while fighting the rebellious Germanic tribes (454). Dengizik, who replaced him, was smart, but was not politically competent. He also died in a struggle with Eastern Rome (469). Irnek understood that it was not possible for the Huns to hold on in Western and Central Europe. Therefore, most of the Huns withdrew to the wide plains in the north of the Black Sea. Some of the Huns returned to Central Asia from here. Some joined the Avars who were advancing towards Europe. This Hun community under the rule of Irnek later played an important role in the emergence of the Bulgarians and Hungarians as a state.

Extra History of European Hun State || The Turkish States

European Hun Empire Rulers :

1) Balamir (375 – 395)
2) Ildız (395 – 410)
3) Karaton (410 – 415)
4) Muncuk (415 – 425)
5) Oktar (425 – 430)
6) Rua (430 – 434)
7) Bleda (434 – 445)
8) Attila (445 – 453)
9) Ilek (453 – 454)

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